The bind() method creates a new function that, when called, has its this keyword set to the provided value, with a given sequence of arguments preceding any provided when the new function is called.


let boundFunc = func.bind(thisArg[, arg1[, arg2[, ...argN]]])


The value to be passed as the this parameter to the target function func when the bound function is called. The value is ignored if the bound function is constructed using the new operator. When using bind to create a function (supplied as a callback) inside a setTimeout, any primitive value passed as thisArg is converted to object. If no arguments are provided to bind , or if the thisArg is null or undefined, the this of the executing scope is treated as the thisArg for the new function.
arg1, arg2, ...argN Optional
Arguments to prepend to arguments provided to the bound function when invoking func.

Return value

A copy of the given function with the specified this value, and initial arguments (if provided).


The bind() function creates a new bound function, which is an exotic function object (a term from ECMAScript 2015) that wraps the original function object. Calling the bound function generally results in the execution of its wrapped function.

A bound function has the following internal properties:

The wrapped function object
The value that is always passed as this value when calling the wrapped function.
A list of values whose elements are used as the first arguments to any call to the wrapped function.
Executes code associated with this object. Invoked via a function call expression. The arguments to the internal method are a this value and a list containing the arguments passed to the function by a call expression.

When a bound function is called, it calls internal method [[Call]] on [[BoundTargetFunction]], with following arguments Call(boundThis, ...args). Where boundThis is [[BoundThis]], args is [[BoundArguments]], followed by the arguments passed by the function call.

A bound function may also be constructed using the new operator. Doing so acts as though the target function had instead been constructed. The provided this value is ignored, while prepended arguments are provided to the emulated function.


Because older browsers are generally also slower browsers, it is far more critical than most people recognize to create performance polyfills to make the browsing experience in outdated browsers slightly less horrible.

Thus, presented below are two options for Function.prototype.bind() polyfills:

  1. The first one is much smaller and more performant, but does not work when using the new operator.
  2. The second one is bigger and less performant, but it permits some usage of the new operator on bound functions.

Generally, in most code it's very rare to see new used on a bound function, so it is generally best to go with the first option.

//  Does not work with `new (funcA.bind(thisArg, args))`
if (!Function.prototype.bind) (function(){
  var slice = Array.prototype.slice;
  Function.prototype.bind = function() {
    var thatFunc = this, thatArg = arguments[0];
    var args =, 1);
    if (typeof thatFunc !== 'function') {
      // closest thing possible to the ECMAScript 5
      // internal IsCallable function
      throw new TypeError('Function.prototype.bind - ' +
             'what is trying to be bound is not callable');
    return function(){
      var funcArgs = args.concat(
      return thatFunc.apply(thatArg, funcArgs);

You can partially work around this by inserting the following code at the beginning of your scripts, allowing use of much of the functionality of bind() in implementations that do not natively support it.

//  Yes, it does work with `new (funcA.bind(thisArg, args))`
if (!Function.prototype.bind) (function(){
  var ArrayPrototypeSlice = Array.prototype.slice;
  Function.prototype.bind = function(otherThis) {
    if (typeof this !== 'function') {
      // closest thing possible to the ECMAScript 5
      // internal IsCallable function
      throw new TypeError('Function.prototype.bind - what is trying to be bound is not callable');

    var baseArgs=, 1),
        baseArgsLength = baseArgs.length,
        fToBind = this,
        fNOP    = function() {},
        fBound  = function() {
          baseArgs.length = baseArgsLength; // reset to default base arguments
          baseArgs.push.apply(baseArgs, arguments);
          return fToBind.apply(
                 fNOP.prototype.isPrototypeOf(this) ? this : otherThis, baseArgs

    if (this.prototype) {
      // Function.prototype doesn't have a prototype property
      fNOP.prototype = this.prototype;
    fBound.prototype = new fNOP();

    return fBound;

Some of the many differences (there may well be others, as this list does not seriously attempt to be exhaustive) between this algorithm and the specified algorithm are:

  • The partial implementation relies on Array.prototype.slice(), Array.prototype.concat(), and Function.prototype.apply(), built-in methods to have their original values.
  • The partial implementation creates functions that do not have immutable "poison pill" caller and arguments properties that throw a TypeError upon get, set, or deletion. (This could be added if the implementation supports Object.defineProperty, or partially implemented [without throw-on-delete behavior] if the implementation supports the __defineGetter__ and __defineSetter__ extensions.)
  • The partial implementation creates functions that have a prototype property. (Proper bound functions have none.)
  • The partial implementation creates bound functions whose length property does not agree with that mandated by ECMA-262: it creates functions with length of 0. A full implementation—depending on the length of the target function and the number of pre-specified arguments—may return a non-zero length.
  • The partial implementation creates bound functions whose name property is not derived from the original function name. According to ECMA-262, name of the returned bound function should be "bound " + name of target function (note the space character).

If you choose to use this partial implementation, you must not rely on those cases where behavior deviates from ECMA-262, 5th edition! Thankfully, these deviations from the specification rarely (if ever) come up in most coding situations. If you do not understand any of the deviations from the specification above, then it is safe in this particular case to not worry about these noncompliant deviation details.

If it's absolutely necessary and performance is not a concern, a far slower (but more specification-compliant solution) can be found at


Creating a bound function

The simplest use of bind() is to make a function that, no matter how it is called, is called with a particular this value.

A common mistake for new JavaScript programmers is to extract a method from an object, then to later call that function and expect it to use the original object as its this (e.g., by using the method in callback-based code).

Without special care, however, the original object is usually lost. Creating a bound function from the function, using the original object, neatly solves this problem:

this.x = 9;    // 'this' refers to global 'window' object here in a browser
const module = {
  x: 81,
  getX: function() { return this.x; }

//  returns 81

const retrieveX = module.getX;
//  returns 9; the function gets invoked at the global scope

//  Create a new function with 'this' bound to module
//  New programmers might confuse the
//  global variable 'x' with module's property 'x'
const boundGetX = retrieveX.bind(module);
//  returns 81

Partially applied functions

The next simplest use of bind() is to make a function with pre-specified initial arguments.

These arguments (if any) follow the provided this value and are then inserted at the start of the arguments passed to the target function, followed by whatever arguments are passed bound function at the time it is called.

function list() {

function addArguments(arg1, arg2) {
  return arg1 + arg2

const list1 = list(1, 2, 3);
//  [1, 2, 3]

const result1 = addArguments(1, 2);
//  3

// Create a function with a preset leading argument
const leadingThirtysevenList = list.bind(null, 37);

// Create a function with a preset first argument.
const addThirtySeven = addArguments.bind(null, 37);

const list2 = leadingThirtysevenList();
//  [37]

const list3 = leadingThirtysevenList(1, 2, 3);
//  [37, 1, 2, 3]

const result2 = addThirtySeven(5);
//  37 + 5 = 42

const result3 = addThirtySeven(5, 10);
//  37 + 5 = 42
//  (the second argument is ignored)

With setTimeout()

By default within window.setTimeout(), the this keyword will be set to the window (or global) object. When working with class methods that require this to refer to class instances, you may explicitly bind this to the callback function, in order to maintain the instance.

function LateBloomer() {
  this.petalCount = Math.floor(Math.random() * 12) + 1;

// Declare bloom after a delay of 1 second
LateBloomer.prototype.bloom = function() {
  window.setTimeout(this.declare.bind(this), 1000);

LateBloomer.prototype.declare = function() {
  console.log(`I am a beautiful flower with ${this.petalCount} petals!`);

const flower = new LateBloomer();
//  after 1 second, calls 'flower.declare()'

Bound functions used as constructors

Warning: This section demonstrates JavaScript capabilities and documents some edge cases of the bind() method.

The methods shown below are not the best way to do things, and probably should not be used in any production environment.

Bound functions are automatically suitable for use with the new operator to construct new instances created by the target function. When a bound function is used to construct a value, the provided this is ignored.

However, provided arguments are still prepended to the constructor call:

function Point(x, y) {
  this.x = x;
  this.y = y;

Point.prototype.toString = function() {
  return `${this.x},${this.y}`;

const p = new Point(1, 2);
// '1,2'

//  not supported in the polyfill below,

//  works fine with native bind:

const YAxisPoint = Point.bind(null, 0/*x*/);

const emptyObj = {};
const YAxisPoint = Point.bind(emptyObj, 0/*x*/);

const axisPoint = new YAxisPoint(5);
axisPoint.toString();                    // '0,5'

axisPoint instanceof Point;              // true
axisPoint instanceof YAxisPoint;         // true
new YAxisPoint(17, 42) instanceof Point; // true

Note that you need not do anything special to create a bound function for use with new.

The corollary is that you need not do anything special to create a bound function to be called plainly, even if you would rather require the bound function to only be called using new.

//  Example can be run directly in your JavaScript console
//  ...continued from above

//  Can still be called as a normal function
//  (although usually this is undesired)

// >  '0,13'

If you wish to support the use of a bound function only using new, or only by calling it, the target function must enforce that restriction.

Creating shortcuts

bind() is also helpful in cases where you want to create a shortcut to a function which requires a specific this value.

Take Array.prototype.slice(), for example, which you want to use for converting an array-like object to a real array. You could create a shortcut like this:

const slice = Array.prototype.slice;

// ...


With bind(), this can be simplified.

In the following piece of code, slice() is a bound function to the apply() function of Function.prototype, with the this value set to the slice() function of Array.prototype. This means that additional apply() calls can be eliminated:

//  same as "slice" in the previous example
const unboundSlice = Array.prototype.slice;
const slice = Function.prototype.apply.bind(unboundSlice);

// ...



ECMAScript (ECMA-262)
The definition of 'Function.prototype.bind' in that specification.

Browser compatibility

ChromeEdgeFirefoxInternet ExplorerOperaSafariAndroid webviewChrome for AndroidFirefox for AndroidOpera for AndroidSafari on iOSSamsung InternetNode.js
bindChrome Full support 7Edge Full support 12Firefox Full support 4IE Full support 9Opera Full support 11.6Safari Full support 5.1WebView Android Full support 4Chrome Android Full support 18Firefox Android Full support 4Opera Android Full support 12Safari iOS Full support 6Samsung Internet Android Full support 1.0nodejs Full support Yes


Full support
Full support

See also