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CSS Grid Layout and Progressive Enhancement - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in spring of 2017, we saw for the first time a major specification like grid being shipped into browsers almost simultaneously, and we now have css grid layout support in the public versions of firefox, chrome, opera, safari and edge.
... the supporting browsers other than in internet explorer, css grid layout is unprefixed in safari, chrome, opera, firefox and edge.
... the internet explorer and edge situation it should be remembered that the original implementation of css grid layout happened in internet explorer 10.
...And 20 more matches
CSS values and units - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
every css declaration includes a property / value pair.
...there are a common set of data types -- values and units -- that css properties accept.
... textual data types <custom-ident> pre-defined keywords as an <ident> <string> <url> text data types are either <string>, a quoted series of characters, or an <ident>, a "css identifier" which is an unquoted string.
...And 19 more matches
CSS Grid Layout and Accessibility - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
those of us who have been doing web development for more years than we care to remember might consider that css grid is a little bit like using “tables for layout”.
...this had some advantages over the “css positioning” that came afterwards, in that we could take advantage of the alignment and full height columns offered by table display.
... in moving to css we often spoke about css for layout enabling a separation of content and markup and presentation.
...And 14 more matches
Using CSS transitions - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css transitions provide a way to control animation speed when changing css properties.
...with css transitions enabled, changes occur at time intervals that follow an acceleration curve, all of which can be customized.
... css transitions let you decide which properties to animate (by listing them explicitly), when the animation will start (by setting a delay), how long the transition will last (by setting a duration), and how the transition will run (by defining a timing function, e.g.
...And 14 more matches
CSS Tutorials - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSTutorials
learning css may be a daunting task.
... in order to help you, we have written numerous tutorials about css.
... beginner-level css tutorials getting started this guide is aimed at complete beginners: you haven't written one single line of css?
...And 13 more matches
Introducing the CSS Cascade - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCascade
it lies at the core of css, as emphasized by the name: cascading style sheets.
... this article explains what the cascade is, the order in which css declarations cascade, and how this affects you, the web developer.
... which css entities participate in the cascade only css declarations, that is property/value pairs, participate in the cascade.
...And 12 more matches
Using CSS custom properties (variables) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
custom properties (sometimes referred to as css variables or cascading variables) are entities defined by css authors that contain specific values to be reused throughout a document.
... complex websites have very large amounts of css, often with a lot of repeated values.
... basic usage declaring a custom property is done using a custom property name that begins with a double hyphen (--), and a property value that can be any valid css value.
...And 12 more matches
CSS Object Model (CSSOM) - Web APIs
the css object model is a set of apis allowing the manipulation of css from javascript.
... it is much like the dom, but for the css rather than the html.
... it allows users to read and modify css style dynamically.
...And 7 more matches
Detecting CSS animation support - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css animations make it possible to do creative animations of content using nothing but css.
... testing for css animation support this code will check to see if css animation support is available: var animation = false, animationstring = 'animation', keyframeprefix = '', domprefixes = 'webkit moz o ms khtml'.split(' '), pfx = '', elem = document.createelement('div'); if( elem.style.animationname !== undefined ) { animation = true; } if( animation === false ) { for( var i = 0; i < domprefixes.length; i++ ) { if( elem.style[ domprefixes[i] + 'animationname' ] !== undefined ) { pfx = domprefix...
... then we check if the css animation-name property on the style collection for the element specified by the variable elem is set.
...And 7 more matches
Using CSS animations - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css animations make it possible to animate transitions from one css style configuration to another.
... animations consist of two components, a style describing the css animation and a set of keyframes that indicate the start and end states of the animation’s style, as well as possible intermediate waypoints.
... there are three key advantages to css animations over traditional script-driven animation techniques: they’re easy to use for simple animations; you can create them without even having to know javascript.
...And 6 more matches
CSS Box Alignment - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css box alignment module specifies css features that relate to the alignment of boxes in the various css box layout models: block layout, table layout, flex layout, and grid layout.
... the module aims to create a consistent method of alignment across all of css.
... older alignment methods css traditionally had very limited alignment capabilities.
...And 5 more matches
CSS grids, logical values, and writing modes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
logical and physical properties and values css is full of physical positioning keywords – left and right, top and bottom.
...there are also physical properties in css.
... this is a very simple example of the problem with physical values and properties being used in css.
...And 5 more matches
Using CSS counters - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css counters let you adjust the appearance of content based on its location in a document.
...counters are, in essence, variables maintained by css whose values may be incremented by css rules to track how many times they're used.
... using counters manipulating a counter's value to use a css counter, it must first be initialized to a value with the counter-reset property (0 by default).
...And 5 more matches
CSS reference - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSReference
use this css reference to browse an alphabetical index of all of the standard css properties, pseudo-classes, pseudo-elements, data types, and at-rules.
... you can also browse key css concepts and a list of selectors organized by type.
... also included is a brief dom-css / cssom reference.
...And 5 more matches
CSSValue.cssValueType - Web APIs
the cssvaluetype read-only property of the cssvalue interface represents the type of the current computed css property value.
... syntax cssvaluetype = cssvalue.cssvaluetype; value an unsigned short representing a code defining the type of the value.
... possible values are: constant description css_custom the value is a custom value.
...And 4 more matches
CSS Grid Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css grid layout excels at dividing a page into major regions or defining the relationship in terms of size, position, and layer, between parts of a control built from html primitives.
...however, many more layouts are either possible or easier with css grid than they were with tables.
... for example, a grid container's child elements could position themselves so they actually overlap and layer, similar to css positioned elements.
...And 4 more matches
CSS Images - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css images is a module of css that defines what types of images can be used (the <image> type, containing urls, gradients and other types of images), how to resize them and how they, and other replaced content, interact with the different layout models.
... reference properties image-orientation image-rendering image-resolution object-fit object-position functions linear-gradient() radial-gradient() repeating-linear-gradient() repeating-radial-gradient() conic-gradient() repeating-conic-gradient() url() element() image() cross-fade() data types <gradient> <image> guides using css gradients presents a specific type of css images, gradients, and how to create and use these.
... implementing image sprites in css describes the common technique grouping several images in one single document to save download requests and speed up the availability of a page.
...And 4 more matches
Overview of CSS Shapes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css shapes level 1 specification describes geometric shapes in css.
... there are a number of ways to create these shapes and in these guides we will find out how css shapes work, and consider some ways you might like to use them.
...this means we can keep things used for styling inside the css.
...And 4 more matches
CSS Object Model (CSSOM) - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms
the css object model (cssom) is a map of all css selectors and relevant properties for each selector in the form of a tree, with a root node, sibling, descendant, child, and other relationship.
... the cssom is very similar to the document object model (dom).
... the cssom, together with the dom, to build the render tree, which is in turn used by the browser to layout and paint the web page.
...And 3 more matches
CSSStyleSheet.cssRules - Web APIs
the read-only cssstylesheet property cssrules returns a live cssrulelist which provides a real-time, up-to-date list of every css rule which comprises the stylesheet.
... each item in the list is a cssrule defining a single rule.
... syntax var rules = cssstylesheet.cssrules; value a live-updating cssrulelist containing each of the css rules making up the stylesheet.
...And 3 more matches
CSS Animations - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css animations is a module of css that lets you animate the values of css properties over time, using keyframes.
... reference css properties animation animation-delay animation-direction animation-duration animation-fill-mode animation-iteration-count animation-name animation-play-state animation-timing-function css at-rules @keyframes guides detecting css animation support describes a technique for detecting if a browser supports css animations.
... using css animations step-by-step tutorial about how to create animations using css.
...And 3 more matches
CSS Display - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css display is a module of css that defines how the css formatting box tree is generated from the document element tree and defines properties controlling it.
... reference css properties display css data types <display-outside> <display-inside> <display-listitem> <display-box> <display-internal> <display-legacy> guides css flow layout (display: block, display: inline) block and inline layout in normal flow flow layout and overflow flow layout and writing modes formatting contexts explained in flow and out of flow display: flex basic concepts of flexbox aligning items in a flex container controlling ratios of flex items along the main axis cross-browser flexbox mixins mastering wrapping of flex items ordering flex items relationship of flexbox to other layout methods backwards compatibility of flexbox typical use cases of flexbox display: grid basic concepts of grid layout relationship to other layout me...
...thods line-based placement grid template areas layout using named grid lines auto-placement in grid layout box alignment in grid layout grids, logical values and writing modes css grid layout and accessibility css grid layout and progressive enhancement realizing common layouts using grids specifications specification status comment css display module level 3the definition of 'display' in that specification.
...And 3 more matches
CSS Overflow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css overflow module contains the features of css relating to scrollable overflow handling in visual media.
... in css overflow happens when the content of a box extends past one or more of the box's edges.
... ink overflow and scrollable overflow there are two types of overflow that you might encounter in css.
...And 3 more matches
CSS Scrollbars - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css scrollbars standardizes the obsolete scrollbar color properties introduced in 2000 by windows ie 5.5.
...</div> result reference css properties scrollbar-width scrollbar-color specifications specification status comment css scrollbars level 1 working draft initial definition.
...rollbar-widthchrome no support noedge no support nofirefox full support 64 full support 64 full support 63disabled disabled from version 63: this feature is behind the layout.css.scrollbar-width.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
...And 3 more matches
Using CSS transforms - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
by modifying the coordinate space, css transforms change the shape and position of the affected content without disrupting the normal document flow.
... css transforms are implemented using a set of css properties that let you apply affine linear transformations to html elements.
... css transforms properties two major properties are used to define css transforms: transform and transform-origin transform-origin specifies the position of the origin.
...And 3 more matches
CSS Layout cookbook - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css layout cookbook aims to bring together recipes for common layout patterns, things you might need to implement in your own sites.
... note: if you are new to css layout then you might first like to take a look at our css layout learning module, as this will give you the basic grounding you need to make use of the recipes here.
... css grid, float fallback, fit-content() sizing columns when to choose multi-column layout, flexbox or grid for your columns.
...And 3 more matches
CSSStyleDeclaration.getPropertyCSSValue() - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration.getpropertycssvalue() method interface returns a cssvalue containing the css value for a property.
... you should use cssstyledeclaration.getpropertyvalue() instead.
... syntax var value = style.getpropertycssvalue(property); parameters property is a domstring representing the property name to be retrieved.
...And 2 more matches
CSSUnitValue.CSSUnitValue() - Web APIs
the cssunitvalue() constructor creates a new cssunitvalue object which returns a new cssunitvalue object which represents values that contain a single unit type.
... for example, "42px" would be represented by a cssnumericvalue.
... syntax var cssunitvalue = new cssunitvalue() parameters value returns a double indicating the number of units.
...And 2 more matches
CSS Animations tips and tricks - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css animations make it possible to do incredible things with the elements that make up your documents and apps.
... run an animation again the css animations specification doesn't offer a way to run an animation again.
... <div class="box"> </div> <div class="runbutton">click me to run the animation</div> css content now we'll define the animation itself using css.
...And 2 more matches
CSS Color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCSS Color
css color is a css module that deals with colors, color types, color blending, opacity, and how you can apply these colors and effects to html content.
... not all css properties that take a <color> as a value are part of this module, but they do depend upon it.
... reference properties color color-adjust opacity data types <color> guides applying color to html elements using css a guide to using css to apply color to a variety of types of content.
...And 2 more matches
CSS Containment - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the aim of the css containment specification is to improve performance of web pages by allowing developers to isolate a subtree of the page from the rest of the page.
...the specification defines a single css property contain.
... <h1>my blog</h1> <article> <h2>heading of a nice article</h2> <p>content here.</p> </article> <article> <h2>another heading of another article</h2> <p>more content here.</p> </article> each article has the contain property with a value of content applied in the css.
...And 2 more matches
Realizing common layouts using CSS Grid Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
to round off this set of guides to css grid layout, i am going to walk through a few different layouts, which demonstrate some of the different techniques you can use when designing with grid layout.
...we can create this type of system using css grid layout.
...with css grid layout, we can place things into rows, with no danger of them rising up into the row above if it is left empty.
...And 2 more matches
Using CSS gradients - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css gradients are represented by the <gradient> data type, a special type of <image> made of a progressive transition between two or more colors.
... declaring colors & creating effects all css gradient types are a range of position-dependent colors.
... the colors produced by css gradients can vary continuously with position, producing smooth color transitions.
...And 2 more matches
Questions about CSS - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSFAQ
cascading style sheets (css) is a rule-based language allowing developers to define styles to apply to html elements (or other markup structures).
... css gives more control over the appearance of a web page to the page creator than to the browser designer or the viewer.
... with css, the sources of style definition for a given document element are in this order of precedence: the style attribute on an individual element tag the style element that defines a specific style sheet containing style declarations or a link element that links to a separate document containing the style element.
...And 2 more matches
CSSKeywordValue.CSSKeywordValue() - Web APIs
the csskeywordvalue constructor creates a new csskeywordvalue object which represents css keywords and other identifiers.
... syntax var csskeywordvalue = new csskeywordvalue(val) parameters value sets or returns the value of the new csskeywordvalue.
... examples the following example resets the css display property to its defaults, setting the inline style attribute to style="display: initial" if viewed in the developer tools inspector.
... #myelement { display: flex; } <div id="myelement">check the developer tools to see the log in the console and to inspect the style attribute on this div.</div> let keyword = new csskeywordvalue('initial'); let myelement = document.getelementbyid('myelement').attributestylemap; myelement.set('display', keyword); console.log( myelement.get('display').value); // 'initial' console.dir( keyword ); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'csskeywordvalue' in that specification.
CSSRule.cssText - Web APIs
WebAPICSSRulecssText
the csstext property of the cssrule interface returns the actual text of a cssstylesheet style-rule.
... note: do not confuse this property with element-style cssstyledeclaration.csstext.
...therefore, to modify it, use the stylesheet's cssrules[index] properties .selectortext and .style (or its sub-properties).
... syntax string = cssrule.csstext example <style> body { background-color: darkblue; } </style> <script> var stylesheet = document.stylesheets[0]; alert(stylesheet.cssrules[0].csstext); // body { background-color: darkblue; } </script> specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssrule: csstext' in that specification.
CSS Backgrounds and Borders - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
styles in the css backgrounds and borders module allow filling backgrounds with color or an image (clipped or resized), or modifying them in other ways.
...(additionally, element boxes can be decorated with a shadow.) reference css properties background background-attachment background-clip background-color background-image background-origin background-position background-position-x background-position-y background-repeat background-size border border-bottom border-bottom-color border-bottom-left-radius border-bottom-right-radius border-bottom-style border-bottom-width border-collapse border-color border-image border-image-outset border-image-repeat border-image-slice border-image-source border-image-width border-left border-left-color border-left-style border-left-width border-radius border-right border-right-colo...
... applying color to html elements using css an overview of how css color can be used in html, including for borders.
... specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3 candidate recommendation css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation css level 1 recommendation ...
CSS Basic Box Model - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css basic box model is a module of css that defines the rectangular boxes—including their padding and margin—that are generated for elements and laid out according to the visual formatting model.
...ling the size of a box height width max-height max-width min-height min-width properties controlling the margins of a box margin margin-bottom margin-left margin-right margin-top margin-trim properties controlling the paddings of a box padding padding-bottom padding-left padding-right padding-top other properties visibility guides introduction to the css box model explains one of the fundamental concept of css: the box model.
... this model defines how css lays out elements, including their content, padding, border, and margin areas.
... specifications specification status comment css basic box model working draft added margin-trim css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation css level 1 recommendation initial definition.
CSS Multi-column Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css multi-column layout is a module of css that adds support for multi-column layouts.
...therefore the properties now defined in the css fragmentation specification are required in order to control how content breaks between columns.
... reference multiple-column layout properties column-count column-fill column-gap column-rule column-rule-color column-rule-style column-rule-width column-span column-width columns related css fragmentation properties break-after break-before break-inside orphans widows guides basic concepts of multicol an overview of the multiple-column layout specification styling columns how to use column rules and manage the spacing between columns.
... specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout module working draft initial definition ...
CSS Flexible Box Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css flexible box layout is a module of css that defines a css box model optimized for user interface design, and the layout of items in one dimension.
... reference css properties flex flex-basis flex-direction flex-flow flex-grow flex-shrink flex-wrap order alignment properties the properties align-content, align-self, align-items and justify-content initially appeared in the flexbox specification, but are now defined in box alignment.
... justify-content align-content align-items align-self place-content place-items row-gap column-gap gap glossary entries flexbox flex container flex item main axis cross axis flex guides basic concepts of flexbox an overview of the features of flexbox relationship of flexbox to other layout methods how flexbox relates to other layout methods, and other css specifications aligning items in a flex container how the box alignment properties work with flexbox.
... backwards compatibility of flexbox browser status of flexbox, interoperability issues and supporting older browsers and versions of the spec specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout module candidate recommendation initial definition.
CSS Fonts - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCSS Fonts
css fonts is a module of css that defines font-related properties and how font resources are loaded.
...this article provides you with all you need to know about using opentype font features in css.
... specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 4 working draft adds font-variation-settings (and related higher-level properties) and font-optical-sizing.
... css fonts module level 3 candidate recommendation adds font-feature-settings (and related higher-level properties) css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation css level 1 recommendation initial definition ...
Box alignment in CSS Grid Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css grid layout implements the specification box alignment level 3 which is the same standard flexbox uses for aligning items in its flex container.
...while the specification currently specifies alignment details for all layout methods, browsers have not fully implemented all of the specification; however, the css grid layout method has been widely adopted.
... css grid layout, and the box alignment specification are designed to work with writing modes in css.
...in the next guide, we will look further into this interaction between css grid layout, box alignment and writing modes.
Understanding CSS z-index - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in css 2.1, each box has a position in three dimensions.
... (from css 2.1 section 9.9.1 - layered presentation) this means that css style rules allow you to position boxes on layers in addition to the normal rendering layer (layer 0).
...z position can be controlled with the css z-index property.
...in fact a dedicated section has been reserved in the css specification css-2.1 appendix e to explain these rules better.
CSS Properties Reference - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
common css properties reference the following is a basic list of the most common css properties with the equivalent of the dom notation which is usually accessed from javascript: note: this list is incomplete.
... for more css properties see the main css reference and mozilla css extensions.
... css javascript background background background-attachment backgroundattachment background-color backgroundcolor background-image backgroundimage background-position backgroundposition background-repeat backgroundrepeat border border border-bottom borderbottom border-bottom-color borderbottomcolor border-bottom-style borderbottomstyle border-bottom-width borderbottomwidth border-color bordercolor border-left borderleft border-left-color borderleftcolor border-left-style borderleftstyle border-left-width borde...
... border-style borderstyle border-top bordertop border-top-color bordertopcolor border-top-style bordertopstyle border-top-width bordertopwidth border-width borderwidth clear clear clip clip color color cursor cursor display display filter filter float cssfloat font font font-family fontfamily font-size fontsize font-variant fontvariant font-weight fontweight height height left left letter-spacing letterspacing line-height lineheight list-style liststyle list-style-image liststyleimage list-style-position l...
CSS Shapes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css shapes describe geometric shapes for use in css.
... for the level 1 specification, css shapes can be applied to floating elements.
... reference properties shape-image-threshold shape-margin shape-outside data types <basic-shape> guides overview of css shapes shapes from box values basic shapes shapes from images edit shape paths in css — firefox developer tools external resources a list of css shapes resources css shapes 101 creating non-rectangular layouts with css shapes how to use css shapes in your web design how to get started with css shapes what i learned in one weekend with css shapes css vs.
... svg: shapes and arbitrarily-shaped ui components specifications specification status comment css shapes module level 1 candidate recommendation initial definition ...
CSS Transforms - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css transforms is a module of css that defines how elements styled with css can be transformed in two-dimensional or three-dimensional space.
... reference properties backface-visibility perspective perspective-origin rotate scale transform transform-box transform-origin transform-style translate data types <transform-function> guides using css transforms step-by-step tutorial about how to transform elements styled with css.
... specifications specification status comment css transforms level 1 working draft initial definition.
... css transforms level 2 editor's draft adds individual transforms.
CSS Transitions - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css transitions is a module of css that lets you create gradual transitions between the values of specific css properties.
... reference properties transition transition-delay transition-duration transition-property transition-timing-function guides using css transitions step-by-step tutorial about how to create transitions using css.
... this article describes each relevant css property and explains how they interact with each other.
... specifications specification status comment css transitions working draft initial definition.
CSS data types - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCSS Types
css data types define typical values (including keywords and units) accepted by css properties and functions.
... index the data types defined by the set of css specifications include the following: <angle> <angle-percentage> <angular-color-hint> <angular-color-stop> <attr-fallback> <attr-name> <basic-shape> <blend-mode> <calc-product> <calc-sum> <calc-value> <color> <color-stop> <color-stop-angle> <counter-style> <custom-ident> <dimension> <filter-function> <flex> <frequency> <frequency-percentage> <gradient> <ident> <image> <integer> <length> <length-percentage> <number> <number-percentage> <percentage> <position> <quote> <ratio> <resolution> <shape-box> <shape-radius> <string> <time> <time-percentage> <tim...
...ing-function> <toggle-value> <transform-function> <type-or-unit> <url> <url-modifier> <zero> specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4 editor's draft css values and units module level 3 candidate recommendation initial definition.
... see also css units and values introduction to css: values and units ...
CSSMathSum.CSSMathSum() - Web APIs
the cssmathsum() constructor creates a new cssmathsum object which creates a new csskeywordvalue object which represents the result obtained by calling add(), sub(), or tosum() on cssnumericvalue.
... syntax var cssmathsum = new cssmathsum() parameters values one or more double integers or cssnumericvalue objects.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssmathsum()' in that specification.
CSSPositionValue.CSSPositionValue() - Web APIs
the csspositionvalue constructor creates a new csspositionvalue object which represents values for properties that take a position, for example object-position.
... syntax cvar csspositionvalue = new csspositionvalue(x, y) parameters x a position along the web page's horizontal axis.
... let somediv = document.getelementbyid('container'); let position = new csspositionvalue(css.px(5), css.px(10)); somediv.attributestylemap.set('object-position', position); console.log(position.x.value, position.y.value); // 5 10 ...
CSSStyleDeclaration.cssText - Web APIs
the csstext property of the cssstyledeclaration interface returns or sets the text of the element's inline style declaration only.
... not to be confused with stylesheet style-rule cssrule.csstext.
... example <span id="s1" style="color: red;"> some text </span> <script> var elem = document.getelementbyid("s1"); alert(elem.style.csstext); // "color: red;" </script> specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstyledeclaration: csstext' in that specification.
CSSUnparsedValue.CSSUnparsedValue() - Web APIs
the cssunparsedvalue() constructor creates a new cssunparsedvalue object which represents property values that reference custom properties.
... syntax var cssunparsedvalue = new cssunparsedvalue(members) parameters members an array whose values must be either a usvstring or a cssvariablereferencevalue.
... examples let value = new cssunparsedvalue( ['4deg'] ), values = new cssunparsedvalue( ['1em', '#445566', '-45px'] ); console.log( value ); // cssunparsedvalue {0: "4deg", length: 1} console.log( values ); // cssunparsedvalue {0: "1em", 1: "#445566", 2: "-45px", length: 3} specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssunparsedvalue' in that specification.
CSSValue.cssText - Web APIs
WebAPICSSValuecssText
the csstext property of the cssvalue interface represents the current computed css property value.
... syntax csstext = cssvalue.csstext; value a domstring representing the current css property value.
... example var styledeclaration = document.stylesheets[0].cssrules[0].style; var cssvalue = styledeclaration.getpropertycssvalue("color"); console.log(cssvalue.csstext); specifications specification status comment document object model (dom) level 2 style specificationthe definition of 'cssvalue.csstext' in that specification.
Introduction to the CSS basic box model - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
when laying out a document, the browser's rendering engine represents each element as a rectangular box according to the standard css basic box model.
... css determines the size, position, and properties (color, background, border size, etc.) of these boxes.
...this default behavior can be altered with the background-clip css property.
CSS Counter Styles - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css counter styles is a module of css that lets you define your own counter styles.
... reference properties counter-increment counter-reset at-rules @counter-style system additive-symbols negative prefix suffix range pad speak-as fallback guides using css counters describes how to use counters to number any html element or to perform complex counting.
... specifications specification status comment css counter styles level 3 candidate recommendation initial definition.
Auto-placement in CSS Grid Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in addition to the ability to place items accurately onto a created grid, the css grid layout specification contains rules that control what happens when you create a grid and do not place some or all of the child items.
...this can be helpful, if you have a document order that reflects the order in which items sit on the grid you may not need to write css rules to place absolutely everything.
...it would be to define a rule that said “auto-place items against the next line named “n”, and grid would then skip other lines.there is an issue raised about this on the csswg github repository, and you would be welcome to add your own use cases to this.
CSS Lists - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css lists is a module of css that defines how lists can be laid out and styled.
... using css counters explains how to use the css counter properties to control list counters.
... specifications specification status comment css lists module level 3 working draft css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation initial definition ...
CSS Logical Properties and Values - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css logical properties and values is a module of css introducing logical properties and values that provide the ability to control layout through logical, rather than physical, direction and dimension mappings.
... the module also defines logical properties and values for properties previously defined in css 2.1.
... (now inset-block-start ) offset-inline-end (now inset-inline-end ) offset-inline-start (now inset-inline-start ) guides basic concepts of logical properties and values logical properties for sizing logical properties for margins, borders and padding logical properties for floating and positioning specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1 editor's draft initial definition.
CSS Positioned Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css positioned layout is a module of css that defines how to position elements on the page.
... reference css properties bottom clear float left position right top z-index guides understanding css z-index presents the notion of stacking context and explains how z-ordering works, with several examples.
... specifications specification status comment css positioned layout module level 3 working draft css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation ...
CSS Scroll Snap - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css scroll snap is a module of css that introduces scroll snap positions, which enforce the scroll positions that a scroll container’s scrollport may end at after a scrolling operation has completed.
...css scroll snap is the current implementation.
... reference css properties on containers scroll-snap-type scroll-snap-stop scroll-padding scroll-padding-top scroll-padding-right scroll-padding-bottom scroll-padding-left scroll-padding-inline scroll-padding-inline-start scroll-padding-inline-end scroll-padding-block scroll-padding-block-start scroll-padding-block-end css properties on children scroll-snap-align scroll-margin scroll-margin-top scroll-margin-right scroll-margin-bottom scroll-margin-left scroll-margin-inline scroll-margin-inline-start scroll-margin-inline-end scroll-margin-block scroll-margin-block-start scroll-margin-block-end guides basic concepts of css scroll snap browser compatibility and scroll snap specification specification status comment css scroll...
CSS selectors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css selectors define the elements to which a set of css rules apply.
...additional attribute selectors css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation added the > child and + adjacent sibling combinators.
... css level 1 recommendation initial definition.
CSS Text - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCSS Text
css text is a module of css that defines how to perform text manipulation, like line breaking, justification and alignment, white space handling, and text transformation.
... reference properties hanging-punctuation hyphens letter-spacing line-break overflow-wrap tab-size text-align text-align-last text-indent text-justify text-size-adjust text-transform white-space word-break word-spacing specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1 editor's draft updates some properties to be independent of the directionality of the text.
... css text module level 3 working draft css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation css level 1 recommendation initial definition ...
CSSMathProduct.CSSMathProduct() - Web APIs
the cssmathproduct() constructor creates a new cssmathproduct object which creates a new cssmathproduct object which syntax var cssmathproduct = new cssmathproduct() parameters arg a value for the cssmathproduct object to be constructed either a double integer or a cssnumericvalue.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssmathproduct()' in that specification.
Custom properties (--*): CSS variables - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS--*
formal syntax <declaration-value> example html <p id="firstparagraph">this paragraph should have a blue background and yellow text.</p> <p id="secondparagraph">this paragraph should have a yellow background and blue text.</p> <div id="container"> <p id="thirdparagraph">this paragraph should have a green background and yellow text.</p> </div> css :root { --first-color: #488cff; --second-color: #ffff8c; } #firstparagraph { background-color: var(--first-color); color: var(--second-color); } #secondparagraph { background-color: var(--second-color); color: var(--first-color); } #container { --first-color: #48ff32; } #thirdparagraph { background-color: var(--first-color); color: var(--second-color); } result specif...
...ications specification status comment css custom properties for cascading variables module level 1the definition of '--*' in that specification.
CSSOM View - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
cssom view is a module of css that lets you manipulate the visual view of a document, in particular its scrolling behavior.
... specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom) view module working draft initial definition.
CSS Basic User Interface - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css basic user interface is a css module that lets you define the rendering and functionality of features related to the user interface.
... specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 4 working draft css basic user interface module level 3 recommendation css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation initial definition.
CSS Charsets - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css charsets is a module of css that lets you specify the character set used in the style sheet.
... reference at-rules @charset specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of '@charset' in that specification.
CSS Conditional Rules - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css conditional rules is a css module that allows to define a set of rules that will only apply based on the capabilities of the processor or the document the style sheet is being applied to.
... reference at-rules @document @media @supports @import specifications specification status comment css conditional rules module level 3 candidate recommendation initial definition ...
CSS Device Adaptation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css device adaptation is a module of css that lets you define the size, zoom factor, and orientation of the viewport.
... reference at-rules @viewport specifications specification status comment css device adaptation working draft initial definition ...
CSS Fragmentation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css fragmentation is a module of css that defines how content is displayed when it is broken (fragmented) across multiple pages, regions, or columns.
... reference box-decoration-break break-after break-before break-inside orphans widows specifications specification status comment css fragmentation module level 3 candidate recommendation initial definition.
CSS Generated Content - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css generated content is a module of css that defines how to add content to an element.
... reference properties content quotes specifications specification status comment css generated content module level 3 working draft css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation initial definition ...
Line-based placement with CSS Grid - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
it may help to realize that this is due to grid using the flow-relative directions defined in the css writing modes specification.
...grid-column-end: -3; grid-row-start: -1; grid-row-end: -2; } .box4 { grid-column-start: -2; grid-column-end: -4; grid-row-start: -3; grid-row-end: -4; } stretching an item across the grid being able to address the start and end lines of the grid is useful as you can then stretch an item right across the grid with: .item { grid-column: 1 / -1; } gutters or alleys the css grid specification includes the ability to add gutters between column and row tracks with the grid-column-gap and grid-row-gap properties.
CSS Masking - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css masking is a css module that defines means, including masking and clipping, for partially or fully hiding portions of visual elements.
... reference properties clip clip-path clip-rule mask mask-border mask-border-mode mask-border-outset mask-border-repeat mask-border-slice mask-border-source mask-border-width mask-clip mask-composite mask-image mask-mode mask-origin mask-position mask-repeat mask-size mask-type specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1 candidate recommendation scalable vector graphics (svg) 1.1 (second edition)the definition of 'mask' in that specification.
CSS Namespaces - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css namespaces is a css module that allows authors to specify xml namespaces in css.
... reference at-rules @namespace specifications specification status comment css namespaces module recommendation initial definition ...
CSS Paged Media - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCSS Pages
css paged media is a module of css that defines how page switches are handled.
... reference css properties page-break-after page-break-before page-break-inside at-rules @page pseudo-classes :blank :first :left :right specifications specification status comment css paged media module level 3 working draft css fragmentation module level 3 candidate recommendation css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation ...
CSS Ruby Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCSS Ruby
css ruby layout is a module of css that provides the rendering model and formatting controls related to the display of ruby annotation.
... reference properties ruby-align ruby-position specifications specification status comment css ruby layout module level 1 working draft initial definition ...
CSS Table - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSCSS Table
css table is a css module that defines how to lay out table data.
... reference properties border-collapse border-spacing caption-side empty-cells table-layout vertical-align specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation initial definition ...
CSS Text Decoration - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css text decoration is a module of css that defines features relating to text decoration, such as underlines, text shadows, and emphasis marks.
...e users often depend on the underline to denote hyperlinks.</p> <p class="underover">this text has lines above <em>and</em> below it.</p> <p class="thick">this text has a really thick purple underline in supporting browsers.</p> <p class="blink">this text might blink for you, depending on the browser you use.</p> specifications specification status comment css text decoration module level 4 working draft css text decoration module level 3 candidate recommendation css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation css level 1 recommendation initial definition ...
CSS Custom Properties for Cascading Variables - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css custom properties for cascading variables is a css module that allows for the creation of custom properties that can be used over and over.
... css properties --* specifications specification status comment css custom properties for cascading variables module level 1 candidate recommendation initial definition ...
CSS Writing Modes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css writing modes is a css module that defines various international writing modes, such as left-to-right (e.g.
... reference properties direction glyph-orientation-horizontal text-combine-upright text-orientation unicode-bidi writing-mode specifications specification status comment css writing modes module level 3 proposed recommendation css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation css level 1 recommendation initial definition ...
Microsoft CSS extensions - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
microsoft applications such as edge and internet explorer support a number of special microsoft extensions to css.
...-snap-y -ms-scroll-translation -ms-text-autospace -ms-touch-select -ms-wrap-flow -ms-wrap-margin -ms-wrap-through zoom pseudo-elements ::-ms-browse ::-ms-check ::-ms-clear ::-ms-expand ::-ms-fill ::-ms-fill-lower ::-ms-fill-upper ::-ms-reveal ::-ms-thumb ::-ms-ticks-after ::-ms-ticks-before ::-ms-tooltip ::-ms-track ::-ms-value media features -ms-high-contrast css-related dom apis mscontentzoomfactor msgetpropertyenabled msgetregioncontent msrangecollection msregionoverflow ...
Mozilla CSS extensions - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
mozilla applications such as firefox support a number of special mozilla extensions to css, including properties, values, pseudo-elements and pseudo-classes, at-rules, and media queries.
...start-backward) :-moz-system-metric(scrollbar-start-forward) :-moz-system-metric(scrollbar-thumb-proportional) :-moz-system-metric(touch-enabled) :-moz-system-metric(windows-default-theme) -moz-user-focus -moz-user-input -moz-user-modify -moz-window-dragging -moz-window-shadow formerly proprietary properties that are now standard note: to maximize the compatibility of your css, you should use the unprefixed standard properties instead of the prefixed ones listed below.
WebKit CSS extensions - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
applications based on webkit or blink, such as safari and chrome, support a number of special webkit extensions to css.
... webkit-prefixed properties on the standards track -webkit-appearance -webkit-font-size-delta -webkit-mask-composite -webkit-mask-position-x -webkit-mask-position-y -webkit-mask-repeat-x -webkit-mask-repeat-y formerly proprietary properties that are now standard note: to maximize the compatibility of your css, you should use the unprefixed standard properties instead of the prefixed ones listed below.
CSS Flow Layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
guides block and inline layout in normal flow in flow and out of flow formatting contexts explained flow layout and writing modes flow layout and overflow reference glossary entries block (css) ...
CSS Miscellaneous - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
these pages contain css properties that are highly experimental or don't fit in any other categories.
CSS Motion Path - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
motion path is a css module that allows authors to animate any graphical object along a custom path.
Basic concepts of CSS Scroll Snap - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css scroll snap specification gives us a way to snap scrolling to certain points as the user scrolls through a document.
Animatable CSS properties - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
certain css properties can be animated using css animations or css transitions.
CSS3 - Archive of obsolete content
css3 is the latest evolution of the cascading style sheets language and aims at extending css2.1.
... modules and the standardization process css level 2 needed 9 years, from august 2002 to june 2011 to reach the recommendation status.
...in order to accelerate the standardization of non-problematic features, the css working group of the w3c, in a decision referred as the beijing doctrine, divided css in smaller components called modules .
...And 86 more matches
How CSS is structured - Learn web development
previous overview: first steps next now that you are beginning to understanding the purpose and use of css, let's examine the structure of css.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, html basics (study introduction to html), and an idea of how css works.
... objective: to learn css's fundamental syntax structures in detail.
...And 61 more matches
Using the CSS Typed Object Model - Web APIs
the css typed object model api exposes css values as typed javascript objects to allow their performant manipulation.
... converting css object model value strings into meaningfully-typed javascript representations and back (via htmlelement.style) can incur a significant performance overhead.
... the css typed om makes css manipulation more logical and performant by providing object features (rather than cssom string manipulation), providing access to types, methods, and an object model for css values.
...And 56 more matches
Handling common HTML and CSS problems - Learn web development
previous overview: cross browser testing next with the scene set, we'll now look specifically at the common cross-browser problems you will come across in html and css code, and what tools can be used to prevent problems from happening, or fix problems that occur.
... this includes linting code, handling css prefixes, using browser dev tools to track down problems, using polyfills to add support into browsers, tackling responsive design problems, and more.
... prerequisites: familiarity with the core html, css, and javascript languages; an idea of the high level principles of cross browser testing.
...And 48 more matches
Organizing your CSS - Learn web development
previous overview: building blocks as you start to work on larger stylesheets and big projects you will discover that maintaining a huge css file can be challenging.
... in this article we will take a brief look at some best practices for writing your css to make it easily maintainable, and some of the solutions you will find in use by others to help improve maintainability.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, html basics (study introduction to html), and an idea of how css works (study css first steps.) objective: to learn some tips and best practices for organizing stylesheets, and find out about some of the naming conventions and tools in common usage to help with css organization and team working.
...And 46 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue - Web APIs
the cssprimitivevalue interface derives from the cssvalue interface and represents the current computed value of a css property.
... this interface represents a single css value.
...an instance of this interface might be obtained from the getpropertycssvalue() method of the cssstyledeclaration interface.
...And 44 more matches
CSS Typed Object Model API - Web APIs
the css typed object model api simplifies css property manipulation by exposing css values as typed javascript objects rather than strings.
... this not only simplifies css manipulation, but also lessens the negative impact on performance as compared to htmlelement.style.
... generally, css values can be read and written in javascript as strings, which can be slow and cumbersome.
...And 34 more matches
What is CSS? - Learn web development
overview: first steps next css (cascading style sheets) allows you to create great-looking web pages, but how does it work under the hood?
... this article explains what css is, with a simple syntax example, and also covers some key terms about the language.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, and html basics (study introduction to html.) objective: to learn what css is.
...And 32 more matches
attr() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSattr
note: the attr() function can be used with any css property, but support for properties other than content is experimental, and support for the type-or-unit parameter is sparse.
... the attr() css function is used to retrieve the value of an attribute of the selected element and use it in the stylesheet.
... /* simple usage */ attr(data-count); attr(title); /* with type */ attr(src url); attr(data-count number); attr(data-width px); /* with fallback */ attr(data-count number, 0); attr(src url, ""); attr(data-width px, inherit); attr(data-something, "default"); syntax values attribute-name is the name of an attribute on the html element referenced in the css.
...And 31 more matches
Using the CSS Painting API - Web APIs
the css paint api is designed to enable developers to programmatically define images which can then be used anywhere a css image can be invoked, such as css background-image, border-image, mask-image, etc.
... to programmatically create an image used by a css stylesheet we need to work through a few steps: define a paint worklet using the registerpaint() function register the worklet include the paint() css function to elaborate over these steps, we're going to start by creating a half-highlight background, like on this header: css paint worklet in an external script file, we employ the registerpaint() function to name our css paint worklet.
...the first is the name we give the worklet — this is the name we will use in our css as the parameter of the paint() function when we want to apply this styling to an element.
...And 29 more matches
Debugging CSS - Learn web development
previous overview: building blocks next sometimes when writing css you will encounter an issue where your css doesn't seem to be doing what you expect.
...this article will give you guidance on how to go about debugging a css problem, and show you how the devtools included in all modern browsers can help you to find out what is going on.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, html basics (study introduction to html), and an idea of how css works (study css first steps.) objective: to learn the basics of what browser devtools are, and how to do simple inspection and editing of css.
...And 28 more matches
The Firefox codebase: CSS Guidelines
this document contains guidelines defining how css inside the firefox codebase should be written, it is notably relevant for firefox front-end engineers.
... basics here are some basic tips that can optimize reviews if you are changing css: avoid !important but if you have to use it, make sure it's obvious why you're using it (ideally with a comment).
... the overriding css section contains more information about this.
...And 27 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.primitiveType - Web APIs
the primitivetype read-only property of the cssprimitivevalue interface represents the type of a css value.
... syntax type = cssprimitivevalue.primitivetype; value an unsigned short representing the type of the value.
... possible values are: constant description css_attr the value is an attr() function.
...And 27 more matches
CSS basics - Learn web development
previous overview: getting started with the web next css (cascading style sheets) is the code that styles web content.
... css basics walks through what you need to get started.
... what is css?
...And 26 more matches
Getting started with CSS - Learn web development
previous overview: first steps next in this article we will take a simple html document and apply css to it, learning some practical things about the language along the way.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, and html basics (study introduction to html.) objective: to understand the basics of linking a css document to an html file, and be able to do simple text formatting with css.
... <!doctype html> <html lang="en"> <head> <meta charset="utf-8"> <title>getting started with css</title> </head> <body> <h1>i am a level one heading</h1> <p>this is a paragraph of text.
...And 25 more matches
<color> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <color> css data type represents a color in the srgb color space.
...to learn more about using color in html, see applying color to html elements using css.
... there are a few caveats to consider when using color keywords: html only recognizes the 16 basic color keywords found in css1, using a specific algorithm to convert unrecognized values (often to completely different colors).
...And 25 more matches
CSS values and units - Learn web development
previous overview: building blocks next every property used in css has a value or set of values that are allowed for that property, and taking a look at any property page on mdn will help you understand the values that are valid for any particular property.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, html basics (study introduction to html), and an idea of how css works (study css first steps.) objective: to learn about the different types of values and units used in css properties.
... what is a css value?
...And 23 more matches
CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS
cascading style sheets (css) is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in html or xml (including xml dialects such as svg, mathml or xhtml).
... css describes how elements should be rendered on screen, on paper, in speech, or on other media.
... css among the core languages of the open web and is standardized across web browsers according to the w3c specification.
...And 23 more matches
CSS - Archive of obsolete content
ArchiveWebCSS
obsolete css features -moz-bindingthe -moz-binding css property is used by mozilla-based applications to attach an xbl binding to a dom element.-moz-border-bottom-colorsin mozilla applications like firefox, the -moz-border-bottom-colors css property sets a list of colors for the bottom border.-moz-border-left-colorsin mozilla applications like firefox, the -moz-border-left-colors css property sets a list of colors for the left border.-moz-border-right-colorsin mozilla applications like firefox, the -moz-border-right-colors css property sets a list of colors for the right border.-moz-border-top-colorsin mozilla applications like firefox, the -moz-border-top-colors css property sets a list of colors for the top border.-moz-stack-sizing-moz-stack-sizing is an extended css property.
...for example, moving a child of the stack far to the right will widen the stack so the child remains visible.-moz-text-blinkthe -moz-text-blink non-standard mozilla css extension specifies the blink mode.-moz-window-shadowthe -moz-window-shadow css property specifies whether a window will have a shadow.
... it only works on mac os x.-ms-acceleratorthe -ms-accelerator css property is a microsoft extension that sets or retrieves a string indicating whether the object represents a keyboard shortcut.-ms-block-progressionthe -ms-block-progression css property is a microsoft extension that specifies the block progression and layout orientation.-ms-content-zoom-chainingthe -ms-content-zoom-chaining css property is a microsoft extension specifying the zoom behavior that occurs when a user hits the zoom limit during page manipulation.-ms-content-zoom-limitthe -ms-content-zoom-limit css shorthand property is a microsoft extension that specifies values for the -ms-content-zoom-limit-min and -ms-content-zoom-limit-max properties.-ms-content-zoom-limit-maxthe -ms-content-zoom-limit-max css property is a mic...
...And 22 more matches
font - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSfont
the font css shorthand property sets all the different properties of an element's font.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: font-family font-size font-stretch font-style font-variant font-weight line-height syntax the font property may be specified as either a single keyword, which will select a system font, or as a shorthand for various font-related properties.
...f font is specified as a shorthand for several font-related properties, then: it must include values for: <font-size> <font-family> it may optionally include values for: <font-style> <font-variant> <font-weight> <font-stretch> <line-height> font-style, font-variant and font-weight must precede font-size font-variant may only specify the values defined in css 2.1, that is normal and small-caps font-stretch may only be a single keyword value.
...And 22 more matches
Applying color to HTML elements using CSS - HTML: Hypertext Markup Language
with css, there are lots of ways to add color to your html elements to create just the look you want.
... this article is a primer introducing each of the ways css color can be used in html.
... we're going to touch on most of what you'll need to know when using color, including a list of what you can color and what css properties are involved, how you describe colors, and how to actually use colors both in stylesheets and in scripts.
...And 22 more matches
CSS building blocks - Learn web development
this module carries on where css first steps left off — now you've gained familiarity with the language and its syntax, and got some basic experience with using it, its time to dive a bit deeper.
... the aim here is to provide you with a toolkit for writing competent css and help you understand all the essential theory, before moving on to more specific disciplines like text styling and css layout.
... an understanding of the basics of css, as discussed in the css first steps module.
...And 21 more matches
CSS FAQ - Learn web development
LearnCSSHowtoCSS FAQ
in this article, you'll find some frequently-asked questions (faqs) about css, along with answers that may help you on your quest to become a web developer.
... why doesn't my css, which is valid, render correctly?
... why doesn't my css, which is valid, render at all?
...And 20 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.getFloatValue() - Web APIs
the getfloatvalue() method of the cssprimitivevalue interface is used to get a float value in a specified unit.
... if this css value doesn't contain a float value or can't be converted into the specified unit, a domexception is raised.
... syntax var floatvalue = cssprimitivevalue.getfloatvalue(unit); parameters unittype an unsigned short representing the code for the unit type, in which the value should be returned.
...And 20 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.setFloatValue() - Web APIs
the setfloatvalue() method of the cssprimitivevalue interface is used to set a float value.
... syntax cssprimitivevalue.setfloatvalue(unittype, floatvalue); parameters unittype an unsigned short representing the code for the unit type, in which the value should be returned.
... valid values are: constant description css_cm the value is a <length> in centimeters.
...And 19 more matches
CSS and JavaScript animation performance - Web Performance
there are many ways to implement web animations, such as css transitions/animations or javascript-based animations (using requestanimationframe()).
... in this article, we analyse the performance differences between css- and javascript-based animation.
... css transitions and animations both css transitions and animations can be used to write animation.
...And 19 more matches
How CSS works - Learn web development
previous overview: first steps next we have learned the basics of css, what it is for and how to write simple stylesheets.
... in this lesson we will take a look at how a browser takes css and html and turns that into a webpage.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, and html basics (study introduction to html.) objective: to understand the basics of how css and html are parsed by the browser, and what happens when a browser encounters css it does not understand.
...And 18 more matches
Properly Using CSS and JavaScript in XHTML Documents - Archive of obsolete content
<style type="text/css"> <!-- body {background-color: blue; color: yellow;} --> </style> <script type="text/javascript"> <!-- var i = 0; var sum = 0; for (i = 0; i < 10; ++i) { sum += i; } alert('sum = ' + sum); // --> </script> this example illustrates that a conformant browser can ignore content inside of comments.
... mozilla 1.1+/opera 7 do not apply css or execute the javascript.
... netscape 7.0x/mozilla 1.0.x do not apply css but does execute the javascript.
...And 17 more matches
CSS and JavaScript accessibility best practices - Learn web development
previous overview: accessibility next css and javascript, when used properly, also have the potential to allow for accessible web experiences ...
...this article outlines some css and javascript best practices that should be considered to ensure even complex content is as accessible as possible.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, a basic understanding of html, css, and javascript, and understanding of what accessibility is.
...And 17 more matches
Adding a new CSS property
this page describes how to add a new css property to the style system.
... once you know which struct you're going to use (or that the property is a shorthand), you can add appropriate entry to nscssproplist.h.
... parsing to start implementing the parsing, first read the syntax line in the property's specification (whose syntax is in turn defined in the css values and units specification) and any prose in the specification that adds additional restrictions to that syntax.
...And 17 more matches
Examine and edit CSS - Firefox Developer Tools
you can examine and edit css in the inspector's css pane.
... examine css rules the rules view lists all the rules that apply to the selected element, ordered from most-specific to least-specific: the four buttons on the right top of the rules view allow you to change the display of certain css and rules view features.
... a warning icon appears next to unsupported css properties or rules that have invalid values.
...And 17 more matches
CSSStyleDeclaration - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration interface represents an object that is a css declaration block, and exposes style information and various style-related methods and properties.
... a cssstyledeclaration object can be exposed using three different apis: via htmlelement.style, which deals with the inline styles of a single element (e.g., <div style="...">).
... via the cssstylesheet api.
...And 17 more matches
@font-feature-values - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the @font-feature-values css at-rule lets you use a common name in the font-variant-alternates property for features activated differently in opentype.
... this can help simplify your css when using multiple fonts.
... the @font-feature-values at-rule may be used either at the top level of your css or inside any css conditional-group at-rule.
...And 17 more matches
Box-shadow generator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this tool lets you construct css box-shadow effects, to add box shadow effects to your css objects.
... <div class="ui-slider-btn-set" data-topic="height" data-type="add"></div> <div class="ui-slider-input" data-topic="height" data-unit="px"></div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="output" class="category"> <div id="menu" class="menu"></div> <div class="title"> css code </div> <div class="group" style="border-top-left-radius: 0;"> <div class="output" data-topic="element" data-name="element" data-prop="width height background-color position=[relative] box-shadow"> </div> <div class="output" data-topic="before" data-name="element:before" ...
...m"> </div> <div class="output" data-topic="after" data-name="element:after" data-prop="content=[&quot;&quot;] position=[absolute] width height top left z-index background-color box-shadow transform -webkit-transform -ms-transform"> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> css content /* grid of twelve * ========================================================================== */ .span_12 { width: 100%; } .span_11 { width: 91.46%; } .span_10 { width: 83%; } .span_9 { width: 74.54%; } .span_8 { width: 66.08%; } .span_7 { width: 57.62%; } .span_6 { width: 49.16%; } .span_5 { width: 40.7%; } .span_4 { width: 32.24%; } .span_3 { width: 23.78%; } .s...
...And 17 more matches
Variable fonts guide - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
they let you access all the variations contained in a given font file via css and a single @font-face reference.
...the w3c has undertaken mapping them to existing css attributes, and in one case introduced a new one, which you'll see below.
...you can use these four-letter tags in css to specify a point along that axis of variation, as will be show in the code examples below.
...And 17 more matches
Fundamental CSS comprehension - Learn web development
objective: to test comprehension of fundamental css theory, syntax and mechanics.
... grab the css resources text file — this contains a set of raw selectors and rulesets that you'll need to study and combine to answer part of this assessment.
...you could paste the html and fill in the css into one of these online editors, and use this url to point the <img> element to the image file.
...And 16 more matches
Learn to style HTML using CSS - Learn web development
cascading stylesheets — or css — is the first technology you should start learning after html.
... while html is used to define the structure and semantics of your content, css is used to style it and lay it out.
... for example, you can use css to alter the font, color, size, and spacing of your content, split it into multiple columns, or add animations and other decorative features.
...And 16 more matches
Specificity - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
specificity is the means by which browsers decide which css property values are the most relevant to an element and, therefore, will be applied.
... specificity is based on the matching rules which are composed of different sorts of css selectors.
... specificity is a weight that is applied to a given css declaration, determined by the number of each selector type in the matching selector.
...And 16 more matches
Using feature queries - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
feature queries are created using the css at-rule @supports, and are useful as they give web developers a way to test to see if a browser has support for a certain feature, and then provide css that will only run based on the result of that test.
... syntax css feature queries are part of the css conditional rules module, which also contains the media query @media rule; when you use feature queries, you will find they behave in a similar way to media queries.
... the difference is that with a media query you are testing something about the environment in which the web page is running, whereas with feature queries you are testing browser support for css features.
...And 15 more matches
Syntax - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSSyntax
the basic goal of the cascading stylesheet (css) language is to allow a browser engine to paint elements of the page with specific features, like colors, positioning, or decorations.
... the css syntax reflects this goal and its basic building blocks are: the property which is an identifier, that is a human-readable name, that defines which feature is considered.
... css declarations setting css properties to specific values is the core function of the css language.
...And 15 more matches
CSS Houdini
houdini is a set of low-level apis that exposes parts of the css engine, giving developers the power to extend css by hooking into the styling and layout process of a browser’s rendering engine.
... houdini is a group of apis that give developers direct access to the css object model (cssom), enabling developers to write code the browser can parse as css, thereby creating new css features without waiting for them to be implemented natively in browsers.
...browsers parse the cssom — including layout, paint, and composite processes — before applying any style updates found in scripts.
...And 15 more matches
Introduction to CSS layout - Learn web development
overview: css layout next this article will recap some of the css layout features we've already touched upon in previous modules — such as different display values — and introduce some of the concepts we'll be covering throughout this module.
... prerequisites: the basics of html (study introduction to html), and an idea of how css works (study introduction to css.) objective: to give you an overview of css page layout techniques.
... css page layout techniques allow us to take elements contained in a web page and control where they are positioned relative to their default position in normal layout flow, the other elements around them, their parent container, or the main viewport/window.
...And 14 more matches
CSSRule - Web APIs
WebAPICSSRule
the cssrule interface represents a single css rule.
... the cssrule interface specifies the properties common to all rules, while properties unique to specific rule types are specified in the more specialized interfaces for those rules' respective types.
... references to a cssrule may be obtained by looking at a cssstylesheet's cssrules list.
...And 14 more matches
CSSStyleSheet - Web APIs
the cssstylesheet interface represents a single css stylesheet, and lets you inspect and modify the list of rules contained in the stylesheet.
... a stylesheet consists of a collection of cssrule objects representing each of the rules in the stylesheet.
... the rules are contained in a cssrulelist, which can be obtained from the stylesheet's cssrules property.
...And 14 more matches
Linear-gradient Generator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
kground </div> <div id="canvas-bg"></div> <div id="add-axis" class="button"> add line </div> </div> <div id="order"> <div id="gradient-axes"></div> <div id="gradient-order"></div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="output"> <div class="css-property"> <span class="property">background:</span> <span class="value"></span> </div> </div> </div> css content /* * color picker tool */ .ui-color-picker { width: 420px; margin: 0; border: 1px solid #ddd; background-color: #fff; display: table; -moz-user-select: none; -webkit-user-select: none; -ms-user-select: none; user-s...
...'images/arrow.svg'); background-size: 24px 24px; position: absolute; right: -10px; top: -9.5px; } /** * output */ #output { width: 100%; padding: 10px 0; margin: 20px 0 50px 0; border: 2px dashed #ccc; border-radius: 5px; display: table; font-size: 13px; overflow: hidden; -moz-user-select: text; -webkit-user-select: text; -ms-user-select: text; user-select: text; } #output .css-property { width: 90%; margin: 5px 5%; color: #777; position: relative; float: left; } #output .property { height: 100%; width: 12%; position: absolute; left: 0; } #output .value { width: 88%; position: absolute; white-space: pre; word-wrap: break-word; display: block; right: 0; } javascript content var uicolorpicker = (function uicolorpicker() { 'use strict'; function g...
...ener('mousedown', resizestart); elem.appendchild(handle); }; return { makeresizable : makeresizable }; })(); /** * gradient point */ var gradientpoint = function gradientpoint(axis) { var point = document.createelement('div'); point.classname = 'gradient-point'; this.position = 0; this.node = point; this.axis = axis; this.color = new hsvcolor(0, 0, 100); this.csscolor = this.color.getcolor(); this.cssposition = 0; this.prevpoint = null; this.nextpoint = null; this.axis.num_points++; point.addeventlistener('click', this.activate.bind(this)); trackmouse(point, this.updatepositionm.bind(this), this.startmove.bind(this), this.endmove.bind(this)); axis.line.appendchild(point); return this; }; gradientpoint.prototype.deletepoint = funct...
...And 14 more matches
display - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSdisplay
the display css property sets whether an element is treated as a block or inline element and the layout used for its children, such as flow layout, grid or flex.
...some values of display are fully defined in their own individual specifications; for example the detail of what happens when display: flex is declared is defined in the css flexible box model specification.
... syntax the css display property is specified using keyword values.
...And 14 more matches
Writing Skinnable XUL and CSS - Archive of obsolete content
each package has its own skin, css files and images that determine the appearance of that package.
... writing css files for a package learn css!
... this may seem obvious, but many of the nastiest problems we're seeing are being caused by people writing buggy or syntactically incorrect css.
...And 13 more matches
Styling Vue components with CSS - Learn web development
in this article we'll explore the different ways of styling vue components with css.
... prerequisites: familiarity with the core html, css, and javascript languages, knowledge of the terminal/command line.
... styling vue components with css before we move on to add more advanced features to our app, we should add some basic css to make it look better.
...And 13 more matches
CSSCounterStyleRule - Web APIs
the csscounterstylerule interface represents an @counter-style at-rule.
... this interface inherits from the following parent interfaces: <div id="interfacediagram" style="display: inline-block; position: relative; width: 100%; padding-bottom: 11.666666666666666%; vertical-align: middle; overflow: hidden;"><svg style="display: inline-block; position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0;" viewbox="-50 0 600 70" preserveaspectratio="xminymin meet"><a xlink:href="/docs/web/api/cssrule" target="_top"><rect x="1" y="1" width="75" height="50" fill="#fff" stroke="#d4dde4" stroke-width="2px" /><text x="38.5" y="30" font-size="12px" font-family="consolas,monaco,andale mono,monospace" fill="#4d4e53" text-anchor="middle" alignment-baseline="middle">cssrule</text></a><polyline points="76,25 86,20 86,30 76,25" stroke="#d4dde4" fill="none"/><line x1="86" y1="25" x2="116" y2="25" ...
...stroke="#d4dde4"/><a xlink:href="/docs/web/api/csscounterstylerule" target="_top"><rect x="116" y="1" width="190" height="50" fill="#f4f7f8" stroke="#d4dde4" stroke-width="2px" /><text x="211" y="30" font-size="12px" font-family="consolas,monaco,andale mono,monospace" fill="#4d4e53" text-anchor="middle" alignment-baseline="middle">csscounterstylerule</text></a></svg></div> a:hover text { fill: #0095dd; pointer-events: all;} properties this interface also inherits properties from its parent cssrule.
...And 13 more matches
Cross-browser Flexbox mixins - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this set uses: fallbacks using 2009 'box' syntax (ff and older webkit) and prefixed syntaxes (ie10, webkit browsers without flex wrapping) final standards syntax (ff, safari, chrome, ie11+, edge, opera) this was inspired by: http://dev.opera.com/articles/view/advanced-cross-browser-flexbox/ with help from: http://w3.org/tr/css3-flexbox/ http://the-echoplex.net/flexyboxes/ http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/hh772069(v=vs.85).aspx http://css-tricks.com/using-flexbox/ a complete guide to flexbox | css-tricks visual guide to css3 flexbox: flexbox playground | note: mixins are not currently supported natively in browsers.
... instead, you will need to use a css pre-processor to make the most of the following.
... however, css pre-processors simply generate valid css, so the techniques used below can be written in pure css instead, if preferred.
...And 13 more matches
CSS property compatibility table for form controls - Learn web development
the following compatibility tables try to summarize the state of css support for html forms.
... due to the complexity of css and html forms, these tables can't be considered a perfect reference.
... property n t note css box model width yes yes height partial[1][2] yes webkit browsers (mostly on mac osx and ios) use the native look & feel for the search fields.
...And 12 more matches
Using multi-column layouts - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css multi-column layout module extends the block layout mode to allow the easy definition of multiple columns of text.
... unfortunately this is impossible to do with css and html without forcing column breaks at fixed positions, or severely restricting the markup allowed in the text, or using heroic scripting.
... this limitation is solved by adding new css properties to extend the traditional block layout mode.
...And 12 more matches
Shorthand properties - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
shorthand properties are css properties that let you set the values of multiple other css properties simultaneously.
... the css specification defines shorthand properties to group the definition of common properties acting on the same theme.
... for instance, the css background property is a shorthand property that's able to define the values of background-color, background-image, background-repeat, and background-position.
...And 12 more matches
Viewport concepts - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this article explains the concept of the viewport — what it is, its impact in terms of css, svg, and mobile devices — and differentiates between the visual viewport and the layout viewport.
...: document.documentelement.clientwidth /* 1200 */ window.innerwidth /* 1200 */ window.outerwidth /* 1200 */ document.documentelement.clientheight /* 800 */ window.innerheight /* 800 */ window.outerheight /* 900 */ there are several dom properties that can help you query viewport size, and other similar lengths: the document element's element.clientwidth is the inner width of a document in css pixels, including padding (but not borders, margins, or vertical scrollbars, if present).
... the window.innerwidth is the width, in css pixels, of the browser window viewport including, if rendered, the vertical scrollbar.
...And 12 more matches
Visual formatting model - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in css the visual formatting model describes how user agents take the document tree, and process and display it for visual media.
... much of the information about the visual formatting model is defined in css2, however, various level 3 specifications have added to this information.
... when reading specifications you will often find references to the model as defined in css2, so an understanding of the model and the terms used to describe it in css2 is valuable when reading other layout specifications.
...And 12 more matches
url() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSurl()
the url() css function is used to include a file.
...the url() function can be passed as a parameter of another css functions, like the attr() function.
...; src: url('fantasticfont.woff'); offset-path: url(#path); mask-image: url("masks.svg#mask1"); /* properties with fallbacks */ cursor: url(pointer.cur), pointer; /* associated short-hand properties */ background: url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/16761/star.gif') bottom right repeat-x blue; border-image: url("/media/diamonds.png") 30 fill / 30px / 30px space; /* as a parameter in another css function */ background-image: cross-fade(20% url(first.png), url(second.png)); mask-image: image(url(mask.png), skyblue, linear-gradient(rgba(0, 0, 0, 1.0), transparent); /* as part of a non-shorthand multiple value */ content: url(star.svg) url(star.svg) url(star.svg) url(star.svg) url(star.svg); /* at-rules */ @document url("https://www.example.com/") { ...
...And 12 more matches
Relationship of flexbox to other layout methods - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in this article we will take a look at how flexbox fits in with all the other css modules.
... note: css versions 1 and 2 were a single monolithic specification where all of css was defined in one large document.
... as css became a more feature rich language, maintaining one huge specification became problematic, with different parts of css moving on at different speeds.
...And 11 more matches
<url> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSurl
the <url> css data type denotes a pointer to a resource, such as an image or a font.
... urls can be used in numerous css properties, such as background-image, cursor, and list-style.
... in css level 1, the url() functional notation described only true urls.
...And 11 more matches
CSS performance optimization - Learn web development
for this reason, css is render blocking, unless the browser knows the css is not currently needed.
... the browser can paint the page once it has downloaded the css and built the css object model.
... browsers follow a specific rendering path: paint only occurs after layout, which occurs after the render tree is created, which in turn requires both the dom and the cssom trees.
...And 10 more matches
<custom-ident> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <custom-ident> css data type denotes an arbitrary user-defined string used as an identifier.
... syntax the syntax of <custom-ident> is similar to css identifiers (such as property names), except that it is case-sensitive.
... to prevent ambiguity, each property that uses <custom-ident> forbids the use of specific values: animation-name forbids the global css values (unset, initial, and inherit), as well as none.
...And 10 more matches
::before (:before) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS::before
in css, ::before creates a pseudo-element that is the first child of the selected element.
... syntax /* css3 syntax */ ::before /* css2 syntax */ :before note: css3 introduced the ::before notation (with two colons) to distinguish pseudo-classes from pseudo-elements.
... browsers also accept :before, introduced in css2.
...And 9 more matches
min-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmin-width
the min-width css property sets the minimum width of an element.
...ied or the absolute lengthanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax auto | <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | fit-content(<length-percentage>)where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting minimum element width table { min-width: 75%; } form { min-width: 0; } specifications specification status comment css box sizing module level 4the definition of 'min-width' in that specification.
... editor's draft css box sizing module level 3the definition of 'min-width' in that specification.
...And 9 more matches
position - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSposition
the position css property sets how an element is positioned in a document.
...it is positioned relative to the initial containing block established by the viewport, except when one of its ancestors has a transform, perspective, or filter property set to something other than none (see the css transforms spec), in which case that ancestor behaves as the containing block.
...this effectively inhibits any "sticky" behavior (see the github issue on w3c csswg).
...And 9 more matches
CSS selectors - Learn web development
previous overview: building blocks next in css, selectors are used to target the html elements on our web pages that we want to style.
... there are a wide variety of css selectors available, allowing for fine-grained precision when selecting elements to style.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, html basics (study introduction to html), and an idea of how css works (study css first steps.) objective: to learn how css selectors work in detail.
...And 8 more matches
CSS first steps - Learn web development
css (cascading style sheets) is used to style and lay out web pages — for example, to alter the font, color, size, and spacing of your content, split it into multiple columns, or add animations and other decorative features.
... this module provides a gentle beginning to your path towards css mastery with the basics of how it works, what the syntax looks like, and how you can start using it to add styling to html.
... guides this module contains the following articles, which will take you through all the basic theory of css, and provide opportunities for you to test out some skills.
...And 8 more matches
CSS - Web APIs
WebAPICSS
the css interface holds useful css-related methods.
... properties the css interface is a utility interface and no object of this type can be created: only static properties are defined on it.
... static properties css.paintworklet secure context provides access to the worklet responsible for all the classes related to painting.
...And 8 more matches
CSSNumericValue - Web APIs
the cssnumericvalue interface of the css typed object model api represents operations that all numeric values can perform.
... interfaces based on cssnumericvalue below is a list of interfaces based on the cssnumericvalue interface.
... cssmathinvert cssmathmax cssmathmin cssmathnegate cssmathproduct cssmathsum cssmathvalue cssnumericarray cssperspective csspositionvalue cssrotate cssskew cssskeyx cssskeyw csstranslate cssunitvalue properties none.
...And 8 more matches
@supports - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@supports
the @supports css at-rule lets you specify declarations that depend on a browser's support for one or more specific css features.
... @supports (display: grid) { div { display: grid; } } @supports not (display: grid) { div { float: right; } } in javascript, @supports can be accessed via the css object model interface csssupportsrule.
...'='<attr-modifier> = i | s examples testing for the support of a given css property @supports (animation-name: test) { … /* css applied when animations are supported without a prefix */ @keyframes { /* other at-rules can be nested inside */ … } } testing for the support of a given css property or a prefixed version @supports ((perspective: 10px) or (-moz-perspective: 10px) or (-webkit-perspective: 10px) or (-ms-perspective: 10px) or (-o-perspe...
...And 8 more matches
Border-image generator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this tool can be used to generate css3 border-image values.
... </div> <div class="property"> <div class="ui-input-slider" data-topic="preview-height" data-info="height" data-unit=" px" data-min="10" data-max="10000" data-sensivity="3"> </div> </div> </div> <div id="output" class="category"> <div class="title"> css code </div> <div class="css-property"> <span class="name"> border-image-slice: </span> <span id="out-border-slice" class="value"> </span> </div> <div class="css-property"> <span class="name"> border-image-width: </span> <span id="out-border-width" class="value"> </span> ...
... </div> <div class="css-property"> <span class="name"> border-image-outset: </span> <span id="out-border-outset" class="value"> </span> </div> <div class="css-property"> <span class="name"> border-image-repeat: </span> <span id="out-border-repeat" class="value"> </span> </div> <div class="css-property"> <span class="name"> border-image-source: </span> <span id="out-border-source" class="value"> </span> </div> </div> </div> </div> css content /* grid of twelve * ========================================================================== *...
...And 8 more matches
Scaling of SVG backgrounds - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
source: no dimensions or intrinsic ratio given this css: background: url(no-dimensions-or-ratio.svg); background-size: 125px 175px; the rendered output would look like this: source: one specified dimension, no intrinsic ratio given this css: background: url(100px-wide-no-height-or-ratio.svg); background-size: 250px 150px; the rendered output would look like this: source: one specified dimension with intrinsic ratio given this css: backg...
...round: url(100px-height-3x4-ratio.svg); background-size: 275px 125px; the rendered output would look like this: source: no specified width or height with intrinsic ratio given this css: background: url(no-dimensions-1x1-ratio.svg); background-size: 250px 100px; the rendered output would look like this: using contain or cover specifying cover for background-size makes the picture as small as possible while still covering the entire background area.
... background: url(no-dimensions-or-ratio.svg); background-size: auto 150px; here, the width is determined using the background area's width per rule 4, while the height is the 140px specified in the css.
...And 8 more matches
background-size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-size css property sets the size of the element's background image.
... css <gradient>s have no intrinsic dimensions or intrinsic proportions.
...rendering of <gradient>s in such cases changed in firefox 8, and at present is generally inconsistent across browsers, which do not all implement rendering in full accordance with the css3 background-size specification and with the css3 image values gradient specification.
...And 8 more matches
max-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmax-width
the max-width css property sets the maximum width of an element.
... </div> </div> css #parent { background: lightblue; width: 300px; } #child { background: gold; width: 100%; max-width: 150px; } result specifications specification status comment css box sizing module level 4the definition of 'max-width' in that specification.
... editor's draft css box sizing module level 3the definition of 'max-width' in that specification.
...And 8 more matches
CSSKeyframesRule - Web APIs
the csskeyframesrule interface describes an object representing a complete set of keyframes for a css animation.
...it implements the cssrule interface with a type value of 7 (cssrule.keyframes_rule).
... properties as a cssrule, csskeyframesrule also implements the properties of these interfaces.
...And 7 more matches
CSSStyleDeclaration.setProperty() - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration.setproperty() method interface sets a new value for a property on a css style declaration object.
... syntax style.setproperty(propertyname, value, priority); parameters propertyname is a domstring representing the css property name (hyphen case) to be modified.
... priority optional is a domstring allowing the "important" css priority to be set.
...And 7 more matches
CSSStyleSheet.insertRule() - Web APIs
the cssstylesheet.insertrule() method inserts a new css rule into the current style sheet, with some restrictions.
... note: although insertrule() is exclusively a method of cssstylesheet, it actually inserts the rule into cssstylesheet.cssrules — its internal cssrulelist.
... index optional a positive integer less than or equal to stylesheet.cssrules.length, representing the newly inserted rule's position in cssstylesheet.cssrules.
...And 7 more matches
::after (:after) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS::after
in css, ::after creates a pseudo-element that is the last child of the selected element.
... syntax /* css3 syntax */ ::after /* css2 syntax */ :after note: css3 introduced the ::after notation (with two colons) to distinguish pseudo-classes from pseudo-elements.
... browsers also accept :after, introduced in css2.
...And 7 more matches
::first-letter (:first-letter) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::first-letter css pseudo-element applies styles to the first letter of the first line of a block-level element, but only when not preceded by other content (such as images or inline tables).
... css3 introduced the ::first-letter notation (with two colons) to distinguish pseudo-classes from pseudo-elements.
... browsers also accept :first-letter, introduced in css2.
...And 7 more matches
content - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScontent
the content css property replaces an element with a generated value.
... <counter>() the value of a css counter, generally a number.
... accessibility concerns css-generated content is not included in the dom.
...And 7 more matches
<easing-function> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <easing-function> css data type denotes a mathematical function that describes how fast one-dimensional values change during animations.
... easing functions css supports three kinds of easing functions: linear, the subset of the cubic bézier curves that are functions, and staircase functions.
...p0 and p3 are the start and the end of the curve and, in css these points are fixed as the coordinates are ratios (the abscissa the ratio of time, the ordinate the ratio of the output range).
...And 7 more matches
font-weight - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-weight css property sets the weight (or boldness) of the font.
... css fonts level 4 extends the syntax to accept any number between 1 and 1000 and introduces variable fonts, which can make use of this much finer-grained range of font weights.
... for the example below to work, you'll need a browser that supports the css fonts level 4 syntax in which font-weight can be any number between 1 and 1000.
...And 7 more matches
<length> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSlength
the <length> css data type represents a distance value.
... lengths can be used in numerous css properties, such as width, height, margin, padding, border-width, font-size, and text-shadow.
... note: although <percentage> values are also css dimensions, and are usable in some of the same properties that accept <length> values, they are not themselves <length> values.
...And 7 more matches
max-height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the max-height css property sets the maximum height of an element.
...tion typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax auto | <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | fit-content(<length-percentage>)where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting max-height using percentage and keyword values table { max-height: 75%; } form { max-height: none; } specifications specification status comment css box sizing module level 4the definition of 'max-height' in that specification.
... editor's draft css box sizing module level 3the definition of 'max-height' in that specification.
...And 7 more matches
writing-mode - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the writing-mode css property sets whether lines of text are laid out horizontally or vertically, as well as the direction in which blocks progress.
...for css, use horizontal-tb instead.
...for css, use horizontal-tb instead.
...And 7 more matches
Sizing items in CSS - Learn web development
previous overview: building blocks next in the various lessons so far you have come across a number of ways to size items on a web page using css.
... understanding how big the different features in your design will be is important, and in this lesson we will summarize the various ways elements get a size via css and define a few terms around sizing that will help you in the future.
... prerequisites: basic computer literacy, basic software installed, basic knowledge of working with files, html basics (study introduction to html), and an idea of how css works (study css first steps.) objective: to understand the different ways we can size things in css.
...And 6 more matches
Animating CSS properties - Firefox Developer Tools
the performance cost of animating a css property can vary from one property to another, and animating expensive css properties can result in jank as the browser struggles to hit a smooth frame rate.
... the frame rate and waterfall can give you insight into the work the browser's doing in a css animation, to help diagnose performance problems.
... with css animations you specify a number of keyframes, each of which uses css to define the appearance of the element at a particular stage of the animation.
...And 6 more matches
CSSGroupingRule - Web APIs
an object implementing the cssgroupingrule interface represents any css at-rule that contains other rules nested within it.
... objects deriving from it : cssconditionrule and its children: cssmediarule, csssupportsrule, and cssdocumentrule.
... csspagerule syntax the syntax is described using the webidl format.
...And 6 more matches
CSSMediaRule - Web APIs
the cssmediarule interface represents a single css @media rule.
... it implements the cssconditionrule interface, and therefore the cssgroupingrule and the cssrule interface with a type value of 4 (cssrule.media_rule).
... interface cssmediarule : cssconditionrule { readonly attribute medialist media; } properties as a cssconditionrule, and therefore both a cssgroupingrule and a cssrule, cssmediarule also implements the properties of these interfaces.
...And 6 more matches
CSSUnparsedValue - Web APIs
the cssunparsedvalue interface of the css typed object model api represents property values that reference custom properties.
... custom properties are represented by cssunparsedvalue and var() references are represented using cssvariablereferencevalue.
... constructor cssunparsedvalue.cssunparsedvalue() creates a new cssunparsedvalue object.
...And 6 more matches
::first-line (:first-line) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::first-line css pseudo-element applies styles to the first line of a block-level element.
... /* selects the first line of a <p> */ p::first-line { color: red; } css3 introduced the ::first-line notation (with two colons) to distinguish pseudo-classes from pseudo-elements.
... browsers also accept :first-line, introduced in css2.
...And 6 more matches
At-rules - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSAt-rule
at-rules are css statements that instructs css how to behave.
... they begin with an at sign, '@' (u+0040 commercial at), followed by an identifier and includes everything up to the next semicolon, ';' (u+003b semicolon), or the next css block, whichever comes first.
... @import — tells the css engine to include an external style sheet.
...And 6 more matches
Block and inline layout in normal flow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
normal flow is defined in the css 2.1 specification, which explains that any boxes in normal flow will be part of a formatting context.
...the rectangular area that contains the boxes that form a line is called a line box.” - 9.4.2 note that the css 2.1 specification describes documents as being in a horizontal, top to bottom writing mode.
...while we don’t tend to think of inline elements as having a box, as with everything in css they do.
...And 6 more matches
font-size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSfont-size
the font-size css property sets the size of the font.
... the em is a very useful unit in css, since it automatically adapts its length relative to the font that the reader chooses to use.
...take the following html and css: html { font-size: 62.5%; /* font-size 1em = 10px on default browser settings */ } span { font-size: 1.6em; } <div> <span>outer <span>inner</span> outer</span> </div> the result is: assuming that the browser's default font-size is 16px, the words “outer” would be rendered at 16px, but the word “inner” would be rendered at 25.6px.
...And 6 more matches
font-variant - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variant css shorthand property allows you to set all the font variants for a font.
... you can also set the css level 2 (revision 1) values of font-variant, (that is, normal or small-caps), by using the font shorthand.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: font-variant-alternates font-variant-caps font-variant-east-asian font-variant-ligatures font-variant-numeric syntax font-variant: small-caps; font-variant: common-ligatures small-caps; /* global values */ font-variant: inherit; font-variant: initial; font-variant: unset; values normal specifies a normal font face; each of the longhand properties has an initial value of normal.
...And 6 more matches
text-transform - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-transform css property specifies how to capitalize an element's text.
... the capitalize keyword was under-specified in css 1 and css 2.1.
...internet explorer 9 was the closest to the css 2 definition, but with some weird cases.) by precisely defining the correct behavior, css text level 3 cleans this mess up.
...And 6 more matches
SVG and CSS - SVG: Scalable Vector Graphics
this page illustrates the application of css to the specialized language for creating graphics: svg.
...so to apply different styles to them you should use css custom properties.
...copy and paste the content from here, making sure that you scroll to get all of it: <svg width="600px" height="600px" viewbox="-300 -300 600 600" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink"> <title>svg demonstration</title> <desc>mozilla css getting started - svg demonstration</desc> <defs> <radialgradient id="fade" cx="0" cy="0" r="200" gradientunits="userspaceonuse"> <stop id="fade-stop-1" offset="33%"/> <stop id="fade-stop-2" offset="95%"/> </radialgradient> </defs> <text id="heading" x="-280" y="-270">svg demonstration</text> <text id="caption" x="-280" y="-250">move your mouse pointer over the flower.</text> <g id="flower"> <circle ...
...And 6 more matches
CSS layout - Learn web development
at this point we've already looked at css fundamentals, how to style text, and how to style and manipulate the boxes that your content sits inside.
...we have covered the necessary prerequisites so we can now dive deep into css layout, looking at different display settings, modern layout tools like flexbox, css grid, and positioning, and some of the legacy techniques you might still want to know about.
... be comfortable with css fundamentals, as discussed in introduction to css.
...And 5 more matches
CSSNamespaceRule - Web APIs
the cssnamespacerule interface describes an object representing a single css @namespace at-rule.
... it implements the cssrule interface, with a type value of 10 (cssrule.namespace_rule).
... interface cssnamespacerule : cssrule { readonly attribute domstring namespaceuri; readonly attribute domstring?
...And 5 more matches
CSSPageRule - Web APIs
csspagerule is an interface representing a single css @page rule.
... it implements the cssrule interface with a type value of 6 (cssrule.page_rule).
... interface csspagerule : cssrule { attribute domstring selectortext; readonly attribute cssstyledeclaration style; }; properties as a cssrule, csspagerule also implements the properties of this interface.
...And 5 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.setStringValue() - Web APIs
the setstringvalue() method of the cssprimitivevalue interface is used to set a string value.
... syntax cssprimitivevalue.setstringvalue(stringtype, stringvalue); parameters stringtype an unsigned short representing the type of the value.
... possible values are: constant description css_attr the value is an attr() function.
...And 5 more matches
CSSValue - Web APIs
WebAPICSSValue
the cssvalue interface represents the current computed value of a css property.
... properties cssvalue.csstext a domstring representing the current value.
... cssvalue.cssvaluetyperead only an unsigned short representing a code defining the type of the value.
...And 5 more matches
CSSValueList - Web APIs
the cssvaluelist interface derives from the cssvalue interface and provides the abstraction of an ordered collection of css values.
... the items in the cssvaluelist are accessible via an integral index, starting from 0.
... <div id="interfacediagram" style="display: inline-block; position: relative; width: 100%; padding-bottom: 11.666666666666666%; vertical-align: middle; overflow: hidden;"><svg style="display: inline-block; position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0;" viewbox="-50 0 600 70" preserveaspectratio="xminymin meet"><a xlink:href="/docs/web/api/cssvalue" target="_top"><rect x="1" y="1" width="80" height="50" fill="#fff" stroke="#d4dde4" stroke-width="2px" /><text x="41" y="30" font-size="12px" font-family="consolas,monaco,andale mono,monospace" fill="#4d4e53" text-anchor="middle" alignment-baseline="middle">cssvalue</text></a><polyline points="81,25 91,20 91,30 81,25" stroke="#d4dde4" fill="none"/><line x1="91" y1="25" x2="121" y2="25" stroke="#d4dde4"/><a xlink:href="/docs/web/api/cssvaluelist" ta...
...And 5 more matches
CSS Painting API - Web APIs
the css painting api — part of the css houdini umbrella of apis — allows developers to write javascript functions that can draw directly into an element's background, border, or content.
... concepts and usage essentially, the css painting api contains functionality allowing developers to create custom values for paint(), a css <image> function.
...to find out more about how this is used, consult using the css painting api.
...And 5 more matches
ElementCSSInlineStyle.style - Web APIs
when getting, it returns a cssstyledeclaration object that contains a list of all styles properties for that element with values assigned for the attributes that are defined in the element's inline style attribute.
... see the css properties reference for a list of the css properties accessible via style.
... the style property has the same (and highest) priority in the css cascade as an inline style declaration set via the style attribute.
...And 5 more matches
@media - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@media
the @media css at-rule can be used to apply part of a style sheet based on the result of one or more media queries.
... with it, you specify a media query and a block of css to apply to the document if and only if the media query matches the device on which the content is being used.
... note: in javascript, the rules created using @media can be accessed with the cssmediarule css object model interface.
...And 5 more matches
@page - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@page
the @page css at-rule is used to modify some css properties when printing a document.
... description you can't change all css properties with @page.
...attempts to change any other css properties will be ignored.
...And 5 more matches
Flow Layout and Writing Modes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css 2.1 specification, which details how normal flow behaves, assumes a horizontal writing mode.
... this is not a comprehensive guide to the use of writing modes in css, the aim here is to document the areas where flow layout interacts with writing modes in possibly unanticipated ways.
... the writing modes specification the css writing modes level 3 specification defines the impact a change the document writing mode has on flow layout.
...And 5 more matches
Relationship of grid layout to other layout methods - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css grid layout has been designed to work alongside other parts of css, as part of a complete system for doing the layout.
... grid and flexbox the basic difference between css grid layout and css flexbox layout is that flexbox was designed for layout in one dimension - either a row or a column.
... the same layout with css grids in this next example, i create the same layout using grid.
...And 5 more matches
Replaced elements - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in css, a replaced element is an element whose representation is outside the scope of css; they're external objects whose representation is independent of the css formatting model.
...the position of the replaced element can be affected using css, but not the contents of the replaced element itself.
... the only other impact css can have on a replaced element is that there are properties which support controlling the positioning of the element's content within its box.
...And 5 more matches
Value definition syntax - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css value definition syntax, a formal grammar, is used for defining the set of valid values for a css property or function.
...a component can be a keyword, some characters considered as a literal, or a value of a given css data type or of another css property.
... the specific case of inherit, initial and unset all css properties accept the keywords inherit, initial and unset, that are defined throughout css.
...And 5 more matches
background-image - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-image css property sets one or more background images on an element.
...how the images are drawn relative to the box and its borders is defined by the background-clip and background-origin css properties.
... </p> <p>and no more.</p> </div> css p { font-size: 1.5em; color: #fe7f88; background-image: none; background-color: transparent; } div { background-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/6457/mdn_logo_only_color.png"); } .catsandstars { background-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11991/startransparent.gif"), url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/7693/catfront.png"); backgro...
...And 5 more matches
border-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-color shorthand css property sets the color of an element's border.
... you can find more information about border colors in borders in applying color to html elements using css.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-bottom-color border-left-color border-right-color border-top-color syntax /* <color> values */ border-color: red; /* horizontal | vertical */ border-color: red #f015ca; /* top | vertical | bottom */ border-color: red rgb(240,30,50,.7) green; /* top | right | bottom | left */ border-color: red yellow green blue; /* global values */ border-color: inherit; border-color: initial; border-color: unset; the border-color property may be specified using one, two, three, or four values.
...And 5 more matches
<percentage> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <percentage> css data type represents a percentage value.
...as with all css dimensions, there is no space between the symbol and the number.
...round-color:pink;"> width: 30%, left margin: 60% </div> </div> the above html will output: font-size <div style="font-size:18px;"> <p>full-size text (18px)</p> <p><span style="font-size:50%;">50% (9px)</span></p> <p><span style="font-size:200%;">200% (36px)</span></p> </div> the above html will output: specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<percentage>' in that specification.
...And 5 more matches
text-align - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-align css property sets the horizontal alignment of a block element or table-cell box.
...</p> css .example { text-align: left; border: solid; } result centered text html <p class="example"> integer elementum massa at nulla placerat varius.
...</p> css .example { text-align: center; border: solid; } result justify html <p class="example"> integer elementum massa at nulla placerat varius.
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Used value - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the used value of a css property is its value after all calculations have been performed on the computed value.
... after the user agent has finished its calculations, every css property has a used value.
...putes and displays the used width value of three elements (updates on resize): html <div id="no-width"> <p>no explicit width.</p> <p class="show-used-width">..</p> <div id="width-50"> <p>explicit width: 50%.</p> <p class="show-used-width">..</p> <div id="width-inherit"> <p>explicit width: inherit.</p> <p class="show-used-width">..</p> </div> </div> </div> css #no-width { width: auto; } #width-50 { width: 50%; } #width-inherit { width: inherit; } /* make results easier to see */ div { border: 1px solid red; padding: 8px; } javascript function updateusedwidth(id) { var div = document.queryselector(`#${id}`); var par = div.queryselector('.show-used-width'); var wid = window.getcomputedstyle(div)["width"]; par.textcontent = `used w...
...And 5 more matches
CSS - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms
css (cascading style sheets) is a declarative language that controls how webpages look in the browser.
... the browser applies css style declarations to selected elements to display them properly.
... css is one of the three core web technologies, along with html and javascript.
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Using CSS generated content - Learn web development
this article describes some ways in which you can use css to add content when a document is displayed.
... one of the important advantages of css is that it helps you to separate a document's style from its content.
... examples text content css can insert text content before or after an element.
...And 4 more matches
CSSConditionRule - Web APIs
an object implementing the cssconditionrule interface represents a single condition css at-rule, which consists of a condition and a statement block.
... it is a child of cssgroupingrule.
... two objects derive from it : cssmediarule and csssupportsrule.
...And 4 more matches
CSSKeyframeRule - Web APIs
the csskeyframerule interface describes an object representing a set of style for a given keyframe.
...it implements the cssrule interface with a type value of 8 (cssrule.keyframe_rule).
... properties as a cssrule, csskeyframerule also implements the properties of these interfaces.
...And 4 more matches
CSSKeywordValue - Web APIs
the csskeywordvalue interface of the the css typed object model api creates an object to represent css keywords and other identifiers.
... the interface instance name is a stringifier meaning that when used anywhere a string is expected it will return the value of csskeyword.value.
... constructor csskeywordvalue.csskeywordvalue() creates a new csskeywordvalue object.
...And 4 more matches
CSSMathSum - Web APIs
the cssmathsum interface of the css typed object model api represents the result obtained by calling add(), sub(), or tosum() on cssnumericvalue.
... a cssmathsum is the object type returned when the stylepropertymapreadonly.get() method is used on a css property whosevalue is created with a calc() function.
... constructor cssmathsum.cssmathsum() creates a new cssmathsum object.
...And 4 more matches
CSSStyleRule - Web APIs
cssstylerule represents a single css style rule.
... it implements the cssrule interface with a type value of 1 (cssrule.style_rule).
... properties cssstylerule.selectortext returns the textual representation of the selector for this rule, e.g.
...And 4 more matches
CSSUnitValue - Web APIs
the cssunitvalue interface of the css typed object model api represents values that contain a single unit type.
... for example, "42px" would be represented by a cssnumericvalue.
... constructor cssstylevalue.cssunitvalue() creates a new cssunitvalue object.
...And 4 more matches
system - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
] | [ extends <counter-style-name> ]where <counter-style-name> = <custom-ident> examples cyclic counter if your browser supports it, this example will render a list like this: ◉ one ◉ two ◉ three css <ul> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> <li>three</li> </ul> @counter-style fisheye { system: cyclic; symbols: ◉; suffix: " "; } ul { list-style: fisheye; } result fixed counter if your browser supports it, this example will render a list like this: ➀ one ➁ two ➂ three 4 four 5 five css <ul> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> <li>three</li> <li>four</li> <li>five...
...eight css <ul> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> <li>three</li> <li>four</li> <li>five</li> <li>six</li> <li>seven</li> <li>eight</li> </ul> @counter-style abc { system: symbolic; symbols: a b c; suffix: ".
...seven css <ul> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> <li>three</li> <li>four</li> <li>five</li> <li>six</li> <li>seven</li> <li>eight</li> </ul> @counter-style abc { system: alphabetic; symbols: a b c; suffix: ".
...And 4 more matches
@import - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@import
the @import css at-rule is used to import style rules from other style sheets.
... list-of-media-queries is a comma-separated list of media queries conditioning the application of the css rules defined in the linked url.
...<mf-value>where <mf-name> = <ident><mf-value> = <number> | <dimension> | <ident> | <ratio> examples importing css rules @import 'custom.css'; @import url("chrome://communicator/skin/"); importing css rules conditionally @import url("fineprint.css") print; @import url("bluish.css") speech; @import "common.css" screen; @import url('landscape.css') screen and (orientation:landscape); specifications specification status comment css cascading and inheritance level 4the definition ...
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OpenType font features guide - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this article provides you with all you need to know about using opentype font features in css.
... caution: there are many css attributes defined to leverage font features, but unfortunately many are not fully implemented.
...it's possible to write css to work both ways but this can become cumbersome.
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animation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSanimation
the animation shorthand css property applies an animation between styles.
...{ togglebutton(button[index], 'pause'); }); node.addeventlistener('animationend', function () { togglebutton(button[index], 'restart'); }); }); button.foreach(function (btn, index) { btn.addeventlistener('click', function () { playpause(index); }); }); }) a description of which properties are animatable is available; it's worth noting that this description is also valid for css transitions.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: animation-delay animation-direction animation-duration animation-fill-mode animation-iteration-count animation-name animation-play-state animation-timing-function syntax the animation property is specified as one or more single animations, separated by commas.
...And 4 more matches
background-position - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-position css property sets the initial position for each background image.
... html <div class="exampleone">example one</div> <div class="exampletwo">example two</div> <div class="examplethree">example three</div> css /* shared among all <div>s */ div { background-color: #ffee99; background-repeat: no-repeat; width: 300px; height: 80px; margin-bottom: 12px; } /* these examples use the `background` shorthand property */ .exampleone { background: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11987/startransparent.gif") #ffee99 2.5cm bottom no-repeat; } .exampletwo { background: url("https://mdn.mozilla...
...*/ .examplethree { background-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11987/startransparent.gif"), url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/7693/catfront.png"); background-position: 0px 0px, right 3em bottom 2em; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'background-position' in that specification.
...And 4 more matches
border-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-width shorthand css property sets the width of an element's border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-bottom-width border-left-width border-right-width border-top-width syntax /* keyword values */ border-width: thin; border-width: medium; border-width: thick; /* <length> values */ border-width: 4px; border-width: 1.2rem; /* vertical | horizontal */ border-width: 2px 1.5em; /* top | horizontal | bottom */ border-width: 1px 2em 1.5cm; /* top | right | bottom | left */ border-width: 1px 2em 0 4rem; /* global keywords */ border-width: inherit; border-width: initial;...
... and lengths html <p id="sval"> one value: 6px wide border on all 4 sides</p> <p id="bival"> two different values: 2px wide top and bottom border, 10px wide right and left border</p> <p id="treval"> three different values: 0.3em top, 9px bottom, and zero width right and left</p> <p id="fourval"> four different values: "thin" top, "medium" right, "thick" bottom, and 1em left</p> css #sval { border: ridge #ccc; border-width: 6px; } #bival { border: solid red; border-width: 2px 10px; } #treval { border: dotted orange; border-width: 0.3em 0 9px; } #fourval { border: solid lightgreen; border-width: thin medium thick 1em; } p { width: auto; margin: 0.25em; padding: 0.25em; } result specifications specification status comment ...
...And 4 more matches
caption-side - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the caption-side css property puts the content of a table's <caption> on the specified side.
... this value was proposed for css 2, but removed from the final css 2.1 specification.
... this value was proposed for css 2, but removed from the final css 2.1 specification.
...And 4 more matches
clear - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSclear
the clear css property sets whether an element must be moved below (cleared) floating elements that precede it.
...suspendisse eget dolor.</p> <p class="red">lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit.</p> <p class="left">this paragraph clears left.</p> </div> css .wrapper{ border:1px solid black; padding:10px; } .left { border: 1px solid black; clear: left; } .black { float: left; margin: 0; background-color: black; color: #fff; width: 20%; } .red { float: left; margin: 0; background-color: pink; width:20%; } p { width: 50%; } clear: right html <div class="wrapper"> <p class="black">lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consecte...
...suspendisse eget dolor.</p> <p class="red">lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit.</p> <p class="right">this paragraph clears right.</p> </div> css .wrapper{ border:1px solid black; padding:10px; } .right { border: 1px solid black; clear: right; } .black { float: right; margin: 0; background-color: black; color: #fff; width:20%; } .red { float: right; margin: 0; background-color: pink; width:20%; } p { width: 50%; } clear: both html <div class="wrapper"> <p class="black">lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit.
...And 4 more matches
column-gap (grid-column-gap) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-gap css property sets the size of the gap (gutter) between an element's columns.
... css grid layout initially defined the grid-column-gap property.
...responding dimension of the content areacomputed valueas specified, with <length>s made absolute, and normal computing to zero except on multi-column elementsanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax normal | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples flex layout html <div id="flexbox"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> css #flexbox { display: flex; height: 100px; column-gap: 20px; } #flexbox > div { border: 1px solid green; background-color: lime; flex: auto; } result grid layout html <div id="grid"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> css #grid { grid-column-gap: 20px; } #grid { display: grid; height: 100px; grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr); grid-template-rows:...
...And 4 more matches
float - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSfloat
the float css property places an element on the left or right side of its container, allowing text and inline elements to wrap around it.
...table-cell block table-caption block table-header-group block table-footer-group block inline-flex flex inline-grid grid other unchanged note: if you're referring to this property from javascript as a member of the htmlelement.style object, modern browsers support float, but in older browsers you have to spell it as cssfloat, with internet explorer versions 8 and older using stylefloat.
... this was an exception to the rule, that the name of the dom member is the camel-case name of the dash-separated css name (due to the fact that "float" is a reserved word in javascript, as seen in the need to escape "class" as "classname" and escape <label>'s "for" as "htmlfor").
...And 4 more matches
font-stretch - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-stretch css property selects a normal, condensed, or expanded face from a font.
...css fonts level 4 extends the syntax to accept a <percentage> value as well.
... html <div class="container"> <p class="condensed">an elephantine lizard</p> <p class="normal">an elephantine lizard</p> <p class="expanded">an elephantine lizard</p> </div> css /* this example uses the league mono variable font, developed by tyler finck (https://www.tylerfinck.com/) and used here under the terms of the sil open font license, version 1.1: http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?item_id=ofl_web */ @font-face { src: url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/16014/leaguemonovariable.ttf'); font-family:'leaguemonovariable'; font-style: normal; fo...
...And 4 more matches
font-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-style css property sets whether a font should be styled with a normal, italic, or oblique face from its font-family.
... for the example below to work, you'll need a browser that supports the css fonts level 4 syntax in which font-style: oblique can accept an <angle>.
... html <header> <input type="range" id="slant" name="slant" min="-90" max="90" /> <label for="slant">slant</label> </header> <div class="container"> <p class="sample">...it would not be wonderful to meet a megalosaurus, forty feet long or so, waddling like an elephantine lizard up holborn hill.</p> </div> css /* amstelvaralpha-vf is created by david berlow (https://github.com/typenetwork/amstelvar) and is used here under the terms of its license: https://github.com/typenetwork/amstelvar/blob/master/ofl.txt */ @font-face { src: url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/16044/amstelvaralpha-vf.ttf'); font-family:'amstelvaralpha'; font-style: normal; } label { font: 1rem monospace; } .container { max-height: 150px; overflow: scroll; } .sample { font: 2rem 'amst...
...And 4 more matches
<integer> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSinteger
the <integer> css data type is a special type of <number> that represents a whole number, whether positive or negative.
... integers can be used in numerous css properties, such as column-count, counter-increment, grid-column, grid-row, and z-index.
...during the css3 values cycle there was a lot of discussion about setting a minimum range to support: the latest decision, in april 2012 during the lc phase, was [-227-1; 227-1], but other values like 224-1 and 230-1 were also proposed.
...And 4 more matches
margin-left - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the margin-left css property sets the margin area on the left side of an element.
...to the width of the containing blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> | auto examples setting left margin using pixels and percentages .content { margin-left: 5%; } .sidebox { margin-left: 10px; } .logo { margin-left: -5px; } specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'margin-left' in that specification.
... working draft no significant change from css 2.1.
...And 4 more matches
repeating-conic-gradient() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the repeating-conic-gradient() css function creates an image consisting of a repeating gradient (rather than a single gradient) with color transitions rotated around a center point (rather than radiating from the center).
... {{embedinteractiveexample("pages/css/function-repeating-conic-gradient.html")}} the source for this interactive example is stored in a github repository.
... note: rendering of color stops in css gradients follows the same rules as color stops in svg gradients.
...And 4 more matches
<string> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSstring
the <string> css data type represents a sequence of characters.
... strings are used in numerous css properties, such as content, font-family, and quotes.
... note: html entities (such as &nbsp; or &#8212;) cannot be used in a css <string>.
...And 4 more matches
transform - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSStransform
the transform css property lets you rotate, scale, skew, or translate an element.
... it modifies the coordinate space of the css visual formatting model.
...that is, all elements whose layout is governed by the css box model except for: non-replaced inline boxes, table-column boxes, and table-column-group boxes.
...And 4 more matches
Creating reusable content with CSS and XBL - Archive of obsolete content
this page illustrates how you can use css in mozilla to improve the structure of complex applications, making code and resources more easily reusable.
...information: xbl bindings the structure provided by markup languages and css is not ideal for complex applications where parts need to be self-contained and reusable.
...you can use css to provide content for selected elements, but the content is limited to text and images, and its positioning is limited to before or after the selected element.
...And 3 more matches
Chrome-only CSS reference
MozillaGeckoChromeCSS
this page lists css properties that are only available in gecko chrome code (and sometimes in other privileged circumstances, eg.
... ua stylesheets.) note: most of the css properties exposed to the web in general are also usable in chrome stylesheets: see the css documentation for a list of these.
... -moz-window-draggingthe -moz-window-dragging css property specifies whether a window is draggable or not.
...And 3 more matches
CSSMathValue.operator - Web APIs
the cssmathvalue.operator read-only property of the cssmathvalue interface indicates the operator that the current subtype represents.
... for example, if the current cssmathvalue subtype is cssmathsum, this property will return the string "sum".
... syntax var astring = cssmathvalue.operator; value a string.
...And 3 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.getCounterValue() - Web APIs
the getcountervalue() method of the cssprimitivevalue interface is used to get the counter value.
... if this css value doesn't contain a counter value, a domexception is raised.
... syntax var countervalue = cssprimitivevalue.getcountervalue(); return value a counter object representing the counter value.
...And 3 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.getRectValue() - Web APIs
the getrectvalue() method of the cssprimitivevalue interface is used to get a rect value.
... if this css value doesn't contain a rect value, a domexception is raised.
... syntax var rectvalue = cssprimitivevalue.getrectvalue(); return value a rect object representing the rect value.
...And 3 more matches
CSSPseudoElement - Web APIs
the csspseudoelement interface represents a pseudo-element that may be the target of an event or animated using the web animations api.
... properties csspseudoelement.element read only returns the originating/parent element of the pseudo-element.
... csspseudoelement.type read only returns the pseudo-element selector as a cssomstring.
...And 3 more matches
CSSRuleList - Web APIs
a cssrulelist is an (indirect-modify only) array-like object containing an ordered collection of cssrule objects.
... description each cssrule can be accessed as rules.item(index), or simply rules[index], where rules is an object implementing the cssrulelist interface (such as cssstylesheet.cssrules), and index is the 0-based index of the rule, in the order as it appears in the style sheet css.
...in fact, .insertrule() and .deleterule() are not even methods of cssrulelist, but only of cssstylesheet.
...And 3 more matches
CSSStyleSheet.rules - Web APIs
rules is a deprecated legacy property of the cssstylesheet interface.
... functionally identical to the preferred cssrules property, it provides access to a live-updating list of the css rules comprising the stylesheet.
... note: as a legacy property, you not use rules and should instead use the preferred cssrules.
...And 3 more matches
CSSVariableReferenceValue - Web APIs
the cssvariablereferencevalue interface of the css typed object model api allows you to create a custom name for a built-in css value.
... this object functionality is sometimes called a "css variable" and serves the same purpose as the var() function.
... constructor cssvariablereferencevalue.cssvariablereferencevalue() creates a new cssvariablereferencevalue object.
...And 3 more matches
Using the CSS properties and values API - Web APIs
the css properties and values api — part of the css houdini umbrella of apis — allows the registration of css custom properties, allowing for property type checking, default values, and properties that do or do not inherit their value.
...there are two ways to register a property, in javascript or in css.
...the css option does not.
...And 3 more matches
CSS Properties and Values API - Web APIs
the css properties and values api — part of the css houdini umbrella of apis — allows developers to explicitly define their css custom properties, allowing for property type checking, default values, and properties that do or do not inherit their value.
... interfaces css.registerproperty defines how a browser should parse a css custom properties.
... access this interface through css.registerproperty in javascript.
...And 3 more matches
:visited - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:visited
the :visited css pseudo-class represents links that the user has already visited.
... styling restrictions for privacy reasons, browsers strictly limit which styles you can apply using this pseudo-class, and how they can be used: allowable css properties are color, background-color, border-color, border-bottom-color, border-left-color, border-right-color, border-top-color, column-rule-color, outline-color, text-decoration-color, and text-emphasis-color.
... html <a href="#test-visited-link">have you visited this link yet?</a><br> <a href="">you've already visited this link.</a> css a { /* specify non-transparent defaults to certain properties, allowing them to be styled with the :visited state */ background-color: white; border: 1px solid white; } a:visited { background-color: yellow; border-color: hotpink; color: hotpink; } result specifications specification status comment html living standardthe definition of ':visited'...
...And 3 more matches
@document - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@document
the @document css at-rule restricts the style rules contained within it based on the url of the document.
... escaped values provided to the regexp() function must additionally be escaped from the css.
...to match a literal period, you would first need to escape it using regular expression rules (to \.), then escape that string using css rules (to \\.).
...And 3 more matches
font-weight - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-weight css descriptor allows authors to specify font weights for the fonts specified in the @font-face rule.
...the values for the css descriptor is same as that of its corresponding font property.
... css fonts level 4 extends the syntax to accept any number between 1 and 1000, inclusive, and introduces variable fonts, which can make use of this much finer-grained range of font weights.
...And 3 more matches
-webkit-animation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-animation boolean css media feature is a chrome extension whose value is true if vendor-prefixed css animations are supported.
... apple has a description in safari css reference.
... syntax the -webkit-animation media feature is a boolean whose value is true if the vendor-prefixed css animation properties are supported.
...And 3 more matches
Resizing background images with background-size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-size css property lets you resize the background image of an element, overriding the default behavior of tiling the image at its full size by specifying the width and/or height of the image.
... html <div class="tiledbackground"> </div> css .tiledbackground { background-image: url(https://www.mozilla.org/media/img/logos/firefox/logo-quantum.9c5e96634f92.png); background-size: 150px; width: 300px; height: 300px; border: 2px solid; color: pink; } result stretching an image you can also specify both the horizontal and vertical sizes of the image, like this: background-size: 300px 150px; the result looks like this:...
...here we scale a 32x32 pixel favicon to 300x300 pixels: .square2 { background-image: url(favicon.png); background-size: 300px; width: 300px; height: 300px; border: 2px solid; text-shadow: white 0px 0px 2px; font-size: 16px; } as you can see, the css is actually essentially identical, save the name of the image file.
...And 3 more matches
Color picker tool - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
colorpicker tool html <div id="container"> <div id="palette" class="block"> <div id="color-palette"></div> <div id="color-info"> <div class="title"> css color </div> </div> </div> <div id="picker" class="block"> <div class="ui-color-picker" data-topic="picker" data-mode="hsl"></div> <div id="picker-samples" sample-id="master"></div> <div id="controls"> <div id="delete"> <div id="trash-can"></div> </div> <div id="void-sample" class="icon"></div> </div> </div> <div id="canvas" data-tutorial="drop"> <div id="zindex" class="ui-input-slider" data-topic="z-index" da...
...ta-info="z-index" data-max="20" data-sensivity="10"></div> </div> </div> css /* * color picker tool */ .ui-color-picker { width: 420px; margin: 0; border: 1px solid #ddd; background-color: #fff; display: table; -moz-user-select: none; -webkit-user-select: none; -ms-user-select: none; user-select: none; } .ui-color-picker .picking-area { width: 198px; height: 198px; margin: 5px; border: 1px solid #ddd; position: relative; float: left; display: table; } .ui-color-picker .picking-area:hover { cursor: default; } /* hsv format - hue-saturation-value(brightness) */ .ui-color-picker .picking-area { background: url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/5707/picker_mask_200.png') center center; background: -moz-linear-gradient(bottom, #000 0%, r...
...it also makes it easy to convert between various color formats supported by css, including: hexa colors, rgb (red/green/blue) and hsl (hue/saturation/lightness).
...And 3 more matches
Basic Concepts of grid layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css grid layout introduces a two-dimensional grid system to css.
...this article introduces the css grid layout and the new terminology that is part of the css grid layout level 1 specification.
...css grid layout has the following features: fixed and flexible track sizes you can create a grid with fixed track sizes – using pixels for example.
...And 3 more matches
Using media queries - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
media queries are used for the following: to conditionally apply styles with the css @media and @import at-rules.
... note: the examples on this page use css's @media for illustrative purposes, but the basic syntax remains the same for all types of media queries.
... deprecated media types: css2.1 and media queries 3 defined several additional media types (tty, tv, projection, handheld, braille, embossed, and aural), but they were deprecated in media queries 4 and shouldn't be used.
...And 3 more matches
Pseudo-classes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
a css pseudo-class is a keyword added to a selector that specifies a special state of the selected element(s).
... css basic user interface module level 3 recommendation defined :default, :valid, :invalid, :in-range, :out-of-range, :required, :optional, :read-only and :read-write, but without the associated semantic meaning.
... no significant change for pseudo-classes defined in css level 2 (revision 1).
...And 3 more matches
background-repeat - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-repeat css property sets how background images are repeated.
...the position of the non-repeated background image is defined by the background-position css property.
...ml <ol> <li>no-repeat <div class="one"></div> </li> <li>repeat <div class="two"></div> </li> <li>repeat-x <div class="three"></div> </li> <li>repeat-y <div class="four"></div> </li> <li>space <div class="five"></div> </li> <li>round <div class="six"></div> </li> <li>repeat-x, repeat-y (multiple images) <div class="seven"></div> </li> </ol> css /* shared for all divs in example */ ol, li { margin: 0; padding: 0; } li { margin-bottom: 12px; } div { background-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12005/starsolid.gif); width: 160px; height: 70px; } /* background repeats */ .one { background-repeat: no-repeat; } .two { background-repeat: repeat; } .three { background-repeat: repeat-x; } .four { backgroun...
...And 3 more matches
border-bottom-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-bottom-width css property sets the width of the bottom border of an element.
...it also applies to ::first-letter.inheritednocomputed valuethe absolute length or 0 if border-bottom-style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <line-width>where <line-width> = <length> | thin | medium | thick examples comparing bottom border widths html <div>element 1</div> <div>element 2</div> css div { border: 1px solid red; margin: 1em 0; } div:nth-child(1) { border-bottom-width: thick; } div:nth-child(2) { border-bottom-width: 2em; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-bottom-width' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-bottom-width' in that specification.
...And 3 more matches
border-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-style shorthand css property sets the line style for all four sides of an element's border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-bottom-style border-left-style border-right-style border-top-style syntax /* keyword values */ border-style: none; border-style: hidden; border-style: dotted; border-style: dashed; border-style: solid; border-style: double; border-style: groove; border-style: ridge; border-style: inset; border-style: outset; /* vertical | horizontal */ border-style: dotted solid; /* top | horizontal | bottom */ border-style: hidden double dashed; /* top | right | bottom | left */ ...
... html <table> <tr> <td class="b1">none</td> <td class="b2">hidden</td> <td class="b3">dotted</td> <td class="b4">dashed</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b5">solid</td> <td class="b6">double</td> <td class="b7">groove</td> <td class="b8">ridge</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b9">inset</td> <td class="b10">outset</td> </tr> </table> css /* define look of the table */ table { border-width: 3px; background-color: #52e396; } tr, td { padding: 2px; } /* border-style example classes */ .b1 {border-style:none;} .b2 {border-style:hidden;} .b3 {border-style:dotted;} .b4 {border-style:dashed;} .b5 {border-style:solid;} .b6 {border-style:double;} .b7 {border-style:groove;} .b8 {border-style:ridge;} .b9 {border-style:inset;} .b10 {...
...And 3 more matches
box-sizing - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the box-sizing css property sets how the total width and height of an element is calculated.
... by default in the css box model, the width and height you assign to an element is applied only to the element's content box.
... the box-sizing property can be used to adjust this behavior: content-box gives you the default css box-sizing behavior.
...And 3 more matches
break-inside - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the break-inside css property sets how page, column, or region breaks should behave inside a generated box.
...duis suscipit faucibus dui sed ultricies.</p> </article> css html { font-family: helvetica, arial, sans-serif; } body { width: 80%; margin: 0 auto; } h1 { font-size: 3rem; letter-spacing: 2px; column-span: all; } h1 + p { margin-top: 0; } p { line-height: 1.5; break-after: column; } figure { break-inside: avoid; } img { max-width: 70%; display: block; margin: 0 auto; } figcaption { font-style: italic; font-size: 0.8rem...
...; width: 70%; } article { column-width: 200px; gap: 20px; } result specifications specification status comment css fragmentation module level 3the definition of 'break-inside' in that specification.
...And 3 more matches
color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScolor
the color css property sets the foreground color value of an element's text and text decorations, and sets the currentcolor value.
... for an overview of using color in html, see applying color to html elements using css.
...owing are all ways to make a paragraph's text red: p { color: red; } p { color: #f00; } p { color: #ff0000; } p { color: rgb(255,0,0); } p { color: rgb(100%, 0%, 0%); } p { color: hsl(0, 100%, 50%); } /* 50% translucent */ p { color: #ff000080; } p { color: rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.5); } p { color: hsla(0, 100%, 50%, 0.5); } specifications specification status comment css color module level 4the definition of 'color' in that specification.
...And 3 more matches
column-span - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-span css property makes it possible for an element to span across all columns when its value is set to all.
... </p> <p>this is a bunch of text split into three columns using the css `columns` property.
... the text is equally distributed over the columns.</p> <p>this is a bunch of text split into three columns using the css `columns` property.
...And 3 more matches
<dimension> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSdimension
the <dimension> css data type represents a <number> with a unit attached to it, for example 10px.
... css uses dimensions to specify distances (<length>), durations (<time>), frequencies (<frequency>), resolutions (<resolution>), and other quantities.
... specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<dimension>' in that specification.
...And 3 more matches
<frequency> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSfrequency
the <frequency> css data type represents a frequency dimension, such as the pitch of a speaking voice.
... it is not currently used in any css properties.
...as with all css dimensions, there is no space between the unit literal and the number.
...And 3 more matches
<image> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSimage
the <image> css data type represents a two-dimensional image.
... description css can handle the following kinds of images: images with intrinsic dimensions (a natural size), like a jpeg, png, or other raster format.
... images with neither intrinsic dimensions, nor an intrinsic aspect ratio, like a css gradient.
...And 3 more matches
inherit - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSinherit
the inherit css keyword causes the element for which it is specified to take the computed value of the property from its parent element.
... it can be applied to any css property, including the css shorthand all.
... specifications specification status comment css cascading and inheritance level 4the definition of 'inherit' in that specification.
...And 3 more matches
linear-gradient() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the linear-gradient() css function creates an image consisting of a progressive transition between two or more colors along a straight line.
... note: rendering of color stops in css gradients follows the same rules as color stops in svg gradients.
...a color can be declared as two adjacent color stops by including both positions in the css declaration.
...And 3 more matches
<number> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSnumber
the <number> css data type represents a number, being either an integer or a number with a fractional component.
... interpolation when animated, values of the <number> css data type are interpolated as real, floating-point numbers.
... specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<number>' in that specification.
...And 3 more matches
padding - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSpadding
the padding css shorthand property sets the padding area on all four sides of an element at once.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: padding-bottom padding-left padding-right padding-top syntax /* apply to all four sides */ padding: 1em; /* vertical | horizontal */ padding: 5% 10%; /* top | horizontal | bottom */ padding: 1em 2em 2em; /* top | right | bottom | left */ padding: 5px 1em 0 2em; /* global values */ padding: inherit; padding: initial; padding: unset; the padding property may be specified ...
...dding-left: the percentage as specified or the absolute lengthpadding-right: the percentage as specified or the absolute lengthpadding-top: the percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax [ <length> | <percentage> ]{1,4} examples setting padding with pixels html <h4>this element has moderate padding.</h4> <h3>the padding is huge in this element!</h3> css h4 { background-color: lime; padding: 20px 50px; } h3 { background-color: cyan; padding: 110px 50px 50px 110px; } result setting padding with pixels and percentages padding: 5%; /* all sides: 5% padding */ padding: 10px; /* all sides: 10px padding */ padding: 10px 20px; /* top and bottom: 10px padding */ /* left and...
...And 3 more matches
<position> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <position> (or <bg-position>) css data type denotes a two-dimensional coordinate used to set a location relative to an element box.
... examples valid positions center left center top right 8.5% bottom 12vmin right -6px 10% 20% 8rem 14px invalid positions left right bottom top 10px 15px 20px 15px specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 3the definition of '<position>' in that specification.
... candidate recommendation relists links to both definitions: if css backgrounds and borders module level 3 is supported, its definition of <position> must also be used.
...And 3 more matches
<resolution> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <resolution> css data type, used for describing resolutions in media queries, denotes the pixel density of an output device, i.e., its resolution.
... on screens, the units are related to css inches, centimeters, or pixels, not physical values.
...as with all css dimensions, there is no space between the unit literal and the number.
...And 3 more matches
text-decoration - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-decoration shorthand css property sets the appearance of decorative lines on text.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: text-decoration-color text-decoration-line text-decoration-style text-decoration-thickness syntax the text-decoration property is specified as one or more space-separated values representing the various longhand text-decoration properties.
...e users often depend on the underline to denote hyperlinks.</p> <p class="underover">this text has lines above <em>and</em> below it.</p> <p class="thick">this text has a really thick purple underline in supporting browsers.</p> <p class="blink">this text might blink for you, depending on the browser you use.</p> specifications specification status comment css text decoration module level 4 working draft adds text-decoration-thickness; note that this isn't yet officially part of the shorthand — this is as yet unspecified.
...And 3 more matches
transition - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the transition css property is a shorthand property for transition-property, transition-duration, transition-timing-function, and transition-delay.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: transition-delay transition-duration transition-property transition-timing-function syntax /* apply to 1 property */ /* property name | duration */ transition: margin-right 4s; /* property name | duration | delay */ transition: margin-right 4s 1s; /* property name | duration | timing function */ transition: margin-right 4s ease-in-out; /* property name | duration | timing ...
...this may be any one of: the keyword none the keyword all a <custom-ident> naming a css property.
...And 3 more matches
Test your skills: CSS and JavaScript accessibility - Learn web development
this aim of this skill test is to assess whether you've understood our css and javascript accessibility best practices article.
... css accessibility 1 in the first task you are presented with a list of links.
... css accessibility 2 in this next task you are presented with a simple bit of content — just headings and paragraphs.
...And 2 more matches
CSS Grid Inspector: Examine grid layouts - Firefox Developer Tools
the grid inspector allows you to examine css grid layouts using the firefox devtools, discovering grids present on a page, examining and modifying them, debugging layout issues, and more.
... discovering css grids when an html element on your page has display: grid applied to it, a number of features are made available in the devtools to provide easy access to grid features.
... in the css pane in the css pane's rules view, any instance of a display: grid declaration gets a grid icon included within it: .
...And 2 more matches
CSS.supports() - Web APIs
WebAPICSSsupports
the css.supports() method returns a boolean value indicating if the browser supports a given css feature, or not.
... syntax css.supports(propertyname, value); css.supports(supportcondition); parameters there are two distinct sets of parameters.
... the first one allows to test the support of a pair property-value: propertyname a domstring containing the name of the css property to check.
...And 2 more matches
CSSMathValue - Web APIs
the cssmathvalue interface of the css typed object model api a base class for classes representing complex numeric values.
... interfaces based on cssmathvalue below is a list of interfaces based on the cssmathvalue interface.
... cssmathinvert cssmathmax cssmathmin cssmathnegate cssmathproduct cssmathsum properties cssmathvalue.operator indicates the operator that the current subtype represents.
...And 2 more matches
CSSNumericValue.max() - Web APIs
the max() method of the cssnumericvalue interface returns the highest value from among the values passed.
... syntax var cssunitvalue = cssnumericvalue.man(number1 ...
... numbern); parameters number either a number or a cssnumericvalue.
...And 2 more matches
CSSNumericValue.min() - Web APIs
the min() method of the cssnumericvalue interface returns the lowest value from among those values passed.
... syntax var cssunitvalue = cssnumericvalue.min(number1 ...
... numbern); parameters number either a number or a cssnumericvalue.
...And 2 more matches
CSSNumericValue.parse() - Web APIs
the parse() method of the cssnumericvalue interface converts a value string into an object whose members are value and the units.
... syntax var cssnumericvalue = cssnumericvalue.parse(csstext); parameters csstext a string containing numeric and unit parts.
... return value a cssnumericvalue.
...And 2 more matches
CSSPositionValue - Web APIs
the csspositionvalue interface of the the css typed object model api represents values for properties that take a position, for example object-position.
... constructor csspositionvalue.csspositionvalue() creates a new csspositionvalue object.
... properties csspositionvalue.x returns the item's position along the web page's horizontal axis.
...And 2 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.getRGBColorValue() - Web APIs
the getrgbcolorvalue() method of the cssprimitivevalue interface is used to get an rgb color value.
... if this css value doesn't contain a rgb color value, a domexception is raised.
... syntax var rgbcolorvalue = cssprimitivevalue.getrgbcolorvalue(); return value an rgbcolor object representing the color value.
...And 2 more matches
CSSPrimitiveValue.getStringValue() - Web APIs
the getstringvalue() method of the cssprimitivevalue interface is used to get a string value.
... if this css value doesn't contain a string value, a domexception is raised.
... syntax var stringvalue = cssprimitivevalue.getstringvalue(); return value a string value.
...And 2 more matches
CSSStyleDeclaration.parentRule - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration.parentrule read-only property returns a cssrule that is the parent of this style block, e.g.
... a cssstylerule representing the style for a css selector.
... syntax var rule = styles.parentrule; value the css rule that contains this declaration block or null if this cssstyledeclaration is not attached to a cssrule.
...And 2 more matches
CSSStyleSheet.addRule() - Web APIs
the obsolete cssstylesheet interface's addrule() legacy method adds a new rule to the stylesheet.
... syntax var result = cssstylesheet.addrule(selector, styleblock, index); parameters selector a domstring specifying the selector portion of the css rule.
... index optional an optional index into the stylesheet's cssrulelist at which to insert the new rule.
...And 2 more matches
CSSStyleValue.parse() - Web APIs
the parse() method of the cssstylevalue interface sets a specific css property to the specified values and returns the first value as a cssstylevalue object.
... syntax cssstylevalue.parse(property, csstext) parameters property a css property to set.
... csstext a comma-separated string containing one or more values to apply to the provided property.
...And 2 more matches
CSSStyleValue.parseAll() - Web APIs
the parseall() method of the cssstylevalue interface sets all occurences of a specific css property to the specified value and returns an array of cssstylevalue objects, each containing one of the supplied values.
... syntax cssstylevalue.parseall(property, value) parameters property a css property to set.
... csstext a comma-separated string containing one or more values that apply to the provided property.
...And 2 more matches
CSSStyleValue - Web APIs
the cssstylevalue interface of the the css typed object model api is the base class of all css values accessible through the typed om api.
... interfaces based on cssstylevalue below is a list of interfaces based on the cssstylevalue interface.
... cssimagevalue csskeywordvalue cssnumericvalue csspositionvalue csstransformvalue cssunparsedvalue methods cssstylevalue.parse() sets a specific css property to the specified values and returns the first value as a cssstylevalue object.
...And 2 more matches
CSSSupportsRule - Web APIs
the csssupportsrule interface describes an object representing a single css @supports at-rule.
... it implements the cssconditionrule interface, and therefore the cssrule and cssgroupingrule interfaces with a type value of 12 (cssrule.supports_rule).
... interface csssupportsrule : cssconditionrule { } properties as a cssconditionrule and therefore a cssrule and a cssgroupingrule, csssupportsrule also implements the properties of these interfaces.
...And 2 more matches
CSSValueList.item() - Web APIs
WebAPICSSValueListitem
the item() method of the cssvaluelist interface is used to retrieve a cssvalue by ordinal index.
... the order in this collection represents the order of the values in the css style property.
... syntax var cssvalue = cssvaluelist.item(index); parameters index an unsigned long representing the index of the css value within the collection.
...And 2 more matches
::selection - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::selection css pseudo-element applies styles to the part of a document that has been highlighted by the user (such as clicking and dragging the mouse across text).
... ::selection { background-color: cyan; } allowable properties only certain css properties can be used with ::selection: color background-color cursor caret-color outline and its longhands text-decoration and its associated properties text-emphasis-color text-shadow in particular, background-image is ignored.
...<p>also try selecting text in this paragraph.</p> css ::-moz-selection { color: gold; background-color: red; } p::-moz-selection { color: white; background-color: blue; } /* make selected text gold on a red background */ ::selection { color: gold; background-color: red; } /* make selected text in a paragraph white on a blue background */ p::selection { color: white; background-color: blue; } result accessibility concerns don't override selected text styles for purely aesthetic reasons — users can customize them to suit their needs.
...And 2 more matches
:active - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:active
the :active css pseudo-class represents an element (such as a button) that is being activated by the user.
... note: on systems with multi-button mice, css3 specifies that the :active pseudo-class must only apply to the primary button; on right-handed mice, this is typically the leftmost button.
...</p> css a:link { color: blue; } /* unvisited links */ a:visited { color: purple; } /* visited links */ a:hover { background: yellow; } /* hovered links */ a:active { color: red; } /* active links */ p:active { background: #eee; } /* active paragraphs */ result active form elements html <form> <label for="my-button">my button: </label> <button id="my-button" type="button">try clicking me or my label!</button> </form> css form :active { color: red; } form button { background: white; } result specifications specifi...
...And 2 more matches
:first - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:first
the :first css pseudo-class, used with the @page at-rule, represents the first page of a printed document.
... (see :first-child for general first element of a node.) /* selects the first page when printing */ @page :first { margin-left: 50%; margin-top: 50%; } note: you can't change all css properties with this pseudo-class.
... syntax :first examples html <p>first page.</p> <p>second page.</p> <button>print!</button> css @page :first { margin-left: 50%; margin-top: 50%; } p { page-break-after: always; } javascript document.queryselector("button").addeventlistener('click', () => { window.print(); }); result press the "print!" button to print the example.
...And 2 more matches
:host() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:host()
the :host() css pseudo-class function selects the shadow host of the shadow dom containing the css it is used inside (so you can select a custom element from inside its shadow dom) — but only if the selector given as the function's parameter matches the shadow host.
... in this example we have a simple custom element — <context-span> — that you can wrap around text: <h1>host selectors <a href="#"><context-span>example</context-span></a></h1> inside the element's constructor, we create style and span elements, fill the span with the content of the custom element, and fill the style element with some css rules: let style = document.createelement('style'); let span = document.createelement('span'); span.textcontent = this.textcontent; const shadowroot = this.attachshadow({mode: 'open'}); shadowroot.appendchild(style); shadowroot.appendchild(span); style.textcontent = 'span:hover { text-decoration: underline; }' + ':host-context(h1) { font-style: italic; }' + ...
... specifications specification status comment css scoping module level 1the definition of ':host()' in that specification.
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:is() (:matches(), :any()) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:is
note: :matches() was renamed to :is() in csswg issue #3258.
... the :is() css pseudo-class function takes a selector list as its argument, and selects any element that can be selected by one of the selectors in that list.
...; } catch(e) { console.log('your browser doesn\'t support :is(), :matches(), or :any()'); } } } } matcheditems.foreach(applyhandler); function applyhandler(elem) { elem.addeventlistener('click', function(e) { alert('this paragraph is inside a ' + e.target.parentnode.nodename); }); } simplifying list selectors the :is() pseudo-class can greatly simplify your css selectors.
...And 2 more matches
:target - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:target
the :target css pseudo-class represents a unique element (the target element) with an id matching the url's fragment.
...isn't that delightful?</p> css p:target { background-color: gold; } /* add a pseudo-element inside the target element */ p:target::before { font: 70% sans-serif; content: "►"; color: limegreen; margin-right: .25em; } /* style italic elements within the target element */ p:target i { color: red; } result pure-css lightbox you can use the :target pseudo-class to create a lightbox without using any javascrip...
...once targeted, the css changes their display so that they are shown.
...And 2 more matches
font-stretch - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-stretch css descriptor allows authors to specify a normal, condensed, or expanded face for the fonts specified in the @font-face rule.
...the values for the css descriptor is same as that of its corresponding font property.
...css fonts level 4 extends the syntax to accept a <percentage> value as well.
...And 2 more matches
@font-face - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the @font-face css at-rule specifies a custom font with which to display text; the font can be loaded from either a remote server or a locally-installed font on the user's own computer.
... the @font-face at-rule may be used not only at the top level of a css, but also inside any css conditional-group at-rule.
... @font-face cannot be declared within a css selector.
...And 2 more matches
@keyframes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the @keyframes css at-rule controls the intermediate steps in a css animation sequence by defining styles for keyframes (or waypoints) along the animation sequence.
...this must match the identifier production in css syntax.
... description javascript can access the @keyframes at-rule with the css object model interface csskeyframesrule.
...And 2 more matches
-webkit-transform-2d - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-transform-2d boolean css media feature is a chrome extension whose value is true if vendor-prefixed css 2d transforms are supported.
... apple has a description in safari css reference.
... syntax -webkit-transform-2d is a boolean css media feature whose value is true if the browser supports -webkit prefixed css 2d transforms.
...And 2 more matches
-webkit-transform-3d - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-transform-3d boolean css media feature is a chrome extension whose value is true if vendor-prefixed css 3d transforms are supported.
... syntax -webkit-transform-3d is a boolean css media feature whose value is true if the browser supports -webkit prefixed css 3d transforms.
... values true the browser supports the 3d css transforms with the -webkit prefix.
...And 2 more matches
@viewport - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@viewport
note: see https://github.com/w3c/csswg-drafts/issues/4766 for discussion around @viewport's removal from the standards track.
... the @viewport css at-rule lets you configure the viewport through which the document is viewed.
... @viewport { width: 100vw; /*sets the width of the actual viewport to the device width*/ } note: the use of <meta name="viewport"> tag overrides @viewport syntax the at-rule contains a set of nested descriptors in a css block that is delimited by curly braces.
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Alternative style sheets - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
for example: <link href="reset.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css"> <link href="default.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" title="default style"> <link href="fancy.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" type="text/css" title="fancy"> <link href="basic.css" rel="alternate stylesheet" type="text/css" title="basic"> in this example, the styles "default style", "fancy", and "basic" will be listed in the page style submenu, with "defa...
... no matter what style is selected, the rules from the reset.css stylesheet will always be applied.
... living standard css object model (cssom)the definition of 'css style sheet collections' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
Attribute selectors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css attribute selector matches elements based on the presence or value of a given attribute.
... examples links css a { color: blue; } /* internal links, beginning with "#" */ a[href^="#"] { background-color: gold; } /* links with "example" anywhere in the url */ a[href*="example"] { background-color: silver; } /* links with "insensitive" anywhere in the url, regardless of capitalization */ a[href*="insensitive" i] { color: cyan; } /* links with "case" anywhere in the url, with matching capital...
....org" */ a[href^="https"][href$=".org"] { color: green; } html <ul> <li><a href="#internal">internal link</a></li> <li><a href="http://example.com">example link</a></li> <li><a href="#insensitive">insensitive internal link</a></li> <li><a href="http://example.org">example org link</a></li> <li><a href="https://example.org">example https org link</a></li> </ul> result languages css /* all divs with a `lang` attribute are bold.
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Using URL values for the cursor property - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
gecko 1.8 supports url values for the css cursor property on windows and linux.
... syntax the basic (css 2.1) syntax for this property is: cursor: [ <url> , ]* <keyword> this means that zero or more urls may be specified (comma-separated), which must be followed by one of the keywords defined in the css specification, such as auto or pointer.
... support for the css 3 syntax for cursor values got added in gecko 1.8 (firefox 1.5): cursor: [ <uri> [ <x> <y> ]?
...And 2 more matches
Basic Concepts of Multicol - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
key concepts and terminology multicol is unlike any of the other layout methods we have in css in that it fragments the content, including all descendent elements, into columns.
... this happens in the same way that content is fragmented into pages when we work with css paged media, for example by creating a print stylesheet.
... this css would give the same result as example 1, column-count set to 3.
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Backwards Compatibility of Flexbox - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the history of flexbox as with all css specifications the flexbox specification went through a large number of changes before it became the candidate recommendation that we have today.
... if you want to include very old browsers with flexbox support then you can include the vendor prefixes in your css in addition to the unprefixed version.
... display: table- the css table display properties are potentially very useful as a fallback, due to the fact that they allow design patterns such as full height columns and vertical centering and work back as far as internet explorer 8.
...And 2 more matches
Basic concepts of flexbox - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this can be contrasted with the two-dimensional model of css grid layout, which controls columns and rows together.
...in the past, css was heavily weighted towards horizontal and left-to-right writing modes.
... after a while, thinking about start and end rather than left and right becomes natural, and will be useful to you when dealing with other layout methods such as css grid layout which follow the same patterns.
...And 2 more matches
Mastering Wrapping of Flex Items - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in this guide i will explain how this works, what it is designed for and what situations really require css grid layout rather than flexbox.
...we can compare our wrapped row example above with the css grid version of that layout to see the difference.
... the following live sample uses css grid layout to create a layout that has as many columns of at least 160 pixels as will fit, distributing the extra space between all columns.
...And 2 more matches
Basic concepts of Logical Properties and Values - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the logical properties and values specification introduces flow-relative mappings for many of the properties and values in css.
... css traditionally has sized things according to the physical dimensions of the screen.
...i have a layout using css grid, the grid container has a width applied and i am using the align-self and justify-self properties to align the items.
...And 2 more matches
Descendant combinator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
/* list items that are descendants of the "my-things" list */ ul.my-things li { margin: 2em; } the descendant combinator is technically one or more css white space characters — the space character and/or one of four control characters: carriage return, form feed, new line, and tab characters — between two selectors in the absence of another combinator.
... additionally, the white space characters of which the combinator is comprised may contain any number of css comments.
... syntax selector1 selector2 { /* property declarations */ } examples css li { list-style-type: disc; } li li { list-style-type: circle; } html <ul> <li> <div>item 1</div> <ul> <li>subitem a</li> <li>subitem b</li> </ul> </li> <li> <div>item 2</div> <ul> <li>subitem a</li> <li>subitem b</li> </ul> </li> </ul> result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of 'descendant combinator' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
all - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSall
the all shorthand css property resets all of an element's properties except unicode-bidi, direction, and css custom properties.
... syntax /* global values */ all: initial; all: inherit; all: unset; /* css cascading and inheritance level 4 */ all: revert; the all property is specified as one of the css global keyword values.
... css body { font-size: small; background-color: #f0f0f0; color: blue; } blockquote { background-color: skyblue; color: red; } result no all property <blockquote id="quote">lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.</blockquote> phasellus eget velit sagittis.
...And 2 more matches
animation-delay - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-delay css property specifies the amount of time to wait from applying the animation to an element before beginning to perform the animation.
... formal definition initial value0sapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <time># examples see css animations for examples.
... specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-delay' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
animation-direction - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-direction css property sets whether an animation should play forward, backward, or alternate back and forth between playing the sequence forward and backward.
... formal definition initial valuenormalapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <single-animation-direction>#where <single-animation-direction> = normal | reverse | alternate | alternate-reverse examples see css animations for examples.
... specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-direction' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
background-attachment - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-attachment css property sets whether a background image's position is fixed within the viewport, or scrolls with its containing block.
...</p> css p { background-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12057/starsolid.gif"); background-attachment: fixed; } result multiple background images this property supports multiple background images.
...</p> css p { background-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12057/starsolid.gif"), url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12059/startransparent.gif"); background-attachment: fixed, scroll; background-repeat: no-repeat, repeat-y; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'backgro...
...And 2 more matches
background - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background shorthand css property sets all background style properties at once, such as color, image, origin and size, or repeat method.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: background-attachment background-clip background-color background-image background-origin background-position background-repeat background-size syntax /* using a <background-color> */ background: green; /* using a <bg-image> and <repeat-style> */ background: url("test.jpg") repeat-y; /* using a <box> and <background-color> */ background: border-box red; /* a single image, centered and scaled */ background: no-repeat center/80% url("../img/image.png"); the backgroun...
...or> && <color-stop-angle>?<angular-color-hint> = <angle-percentage>where <color-stop-length> = <length-percentage>{1,2}<color-stop-angle> = <angle-percentage>{1,2}<angle-percentage> = <angle> | <percentage> examples setting backgrounds with color keywords and images html <p class="topbanner"> starry sky<br/> twinkle twinkle<br/> starry sky </p> <p class="warning">here is a paragraph<p> css .warning { background: pink; } .topbanner { background: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11983/starsolid.gif") #99f repeat-y fixed; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'background' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
border-bottom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-bottom shorthand css property sets an element's bottom border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-bottom-color border-bottom-style border-bottom-width syntax border-bottom: 1px; border-bottom: 2px dotted; border-bottom: medium dashed blue; the three values of the shorthand property can be specified in any order, and one or two of them may be omitted.
...</div> css div { border-bottom: 4px dashed blue; background-color: gold; height: 100px; width: 100px; font-weight: bold; text-align: center; } results specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-bottom' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
border-left - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-left shorthand css property set an element's left border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-left-color border-left-style border-left-width syntax border-left: 1px; border-left: 2px dotted; border-left: medium dashed green; the three values of the shorthand property can be specified in any order, and one or two of them may be omitted.
...</div> css div { border-left: 4px dashed blue; background-color: gold; height: 100px; width: 100px; font-weight: bold; text-align: center; } results specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-left' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
border-right - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-right shorthand css property sets the properties of an element's right border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-right-color border-right-style border-right-width syntax border-right: 1px; border-right: 2px dotted; border-right: medium dashed green; the three values of the shorthand property can be specified in any order, and one or two of them may be omitted.
...</div> css div { border-right: 4px dashed blue; background-color: gold; height: 100px; width: 100px; font-weight: bold; text-align: center; } results specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-right' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
border-top - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-top shorthand css property sets all the properties of an element's top border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-top-color border-top-style border-top-width syntax border-top: 1px; border-top: 2px dotted; border-top: medium dashed green; the three values of the shorthand property can be specified in any order, and one or two of them may be omitted.
...</div> css div { border-top: 4px dashed blue; background-color: gold; height: 100px; width: 100px; font-weight: bold; text-align: center; } results specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-top' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
border - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSborder
the border shorthand css property sets an element's border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-color border-style border-width syntax /* style */ border: solid; /* width | style */ border: 2px dotted; /* style | color */ border: outset #f33; /* width | style | color */ border: medium dashed green; /* global values */ border: inherit; border: initial; border: unset; the border property may be specified using one, two, or three of the values listed below.
...amazing, isn't it?</div> css div { border: 0.5rem outset pink; outline: 0.5rem solid khaki; box-shadow: 0 0 0 2rem skyblue; border-radius: 12px; font: bold 1rem sans-serif; margin: 2rem; padding: 1rem; outline-offset: 0.5rem; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
box-direction - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this is a property of the original css flexible box layout module draft, and has been replaced by a newer standard.
... the box-direction css property specifies whether a box lays out its contents normally (from the top or left edge), or in reverse (from the bottom or right edge).
... formal definition initial valuenormalapplies toelements with a css display value of box or inline-boxinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax normal | reverse | inherit examples setting box direction .example { /* bottom-to-top layout */ -moz-box-direction: reverse; /* mozilla */ -webkit-box-direction: reverse; /* webkit */ box-direction: reverse; /* as specified */ } specifications not part of an...
...And 2 more matches
box-orient - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this is a property of the original css flexible box layout module draft, and has been replaced by a newer standard.
... the box-orient css property sets whether an element lays out its contents horizontally or vertically.
...this css property will only apply to html elements with a css display value of box or inline-box.
...And 2 more matches
break-after - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the break-after css property sets how page, column, or region breaks should behave after a generated box.
...duis suscipit faucibus dui sed ultricies.</p> </article> css html { font-family: helvetica, arial, sans-serif; } h1 { font-size: 3rem; letter-spacing: 2px; column-span: all; } h2 { font-size: 1.2rem; color: red; letter-spacing: 1px; } p { line-height: 1.5; break-after: column; } article { column-width: 200px; gap: 20px; } result specifications specification status comment css fragmentation module ...
... css regions module level 1the definition of 'break-after' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
break-before - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the break-before css property sets how page, column, or region breaks should behave before a generated box.
...duis suscipit faucibus dui sed ultricies.</p> </article> css html { font-family: helvetica, arial, sans-serif; } h1 { font-size: 3rem; letter-spacing: 2px; column-span: all; } h2 { font-size: 1.2rem; color: red; letter-spacing: 1px; break-before: column; } p { line-height: 1.5; } article { column-width: 200px; gap: 20px; } result specifications specification status comment css fragmentation module...
... css regions module level 1the definition of 'break-before' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
calc() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScalc
the calc() css function lets you perform calculations when specifying css property values.
...in this example, the css creates a banner that stretches across the window, with a 40-pixel gap between both sides of the banner and the edges of the window: .banner { position: absolute; left: 40px; width: calc(100% - 80px); border: solid black 1px; box-shadow: 1px 2px; background-color: yellow; padding: 6px; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box; } <div class="banner">this is a banner!</div> ...
... let's look at some css: input { padding: 2px; display: block; width: calc(100% - 1em); } #formbox { width: calc(100% / 6); border: 1px solid black; padding: 4px; } here, the form itself is established to use 1/6 of the available window width.
...And 2 more matches
conic-gradient() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the conic-gradient() css function creates an image consisting of a gradient with color transitions rotated around a center point (rather than radiating from the center).
... note: rendering of color stops in css gradients follows the same rules as color stops in svg gradients.
...while it is possible to create pie charts, checkerboards, and other effects with conic gradients, css images provide no native way to assign alternative text, and therefore the image represented by the conic gradient will not be accessible to screen reader users.
...And 2 more matches
counter() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScounter
the counter() css function returns a string representing the current value of the named counter, if there is one.
... note: the counter() function can be used with any css property, but support for properties other than content is experimental, and support for the type-or-unit parameter is sparse.
...)where <counter-style> = <counter-style-name> | symbols()where <counter-style-name> = <custom-ident> examples default value compared to upper roman html <ol> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ol> css ol { counter-reset: listcounter; } li { counter-increment: listcounter; } li::after { content: "[" counter(listcounter) "] == [" counter(listcounter, upper-roman) "]"; } result decimal-leading-zero compared to lower-alpha html <ol> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ol> css ol { counter-reset: count; } li { counter-increment: count; } li::after { content: "[...
...And 2 more matches
counters() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScounters
the counters() css function enables nested counters, returning a concatenated string representing the current values of the named counters, if there are any.
... note: the counters() function can be used with any css property, but support for properties other than content is experimental, and support for the type-or-unit parameter is sparse.
...-style-name> = <custom-ident> examples default value compared to upper roman html <ol> <li> <ol> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ol> </li> <li></li> <li></li> <li> <ol> <li></li> <li> <ol> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ol> </li> </ol> </li> </ol> css ol { counter-reset: listcounter; } li { counter-increment: listcounter; } li::marker { content: counters(listcounter, '.', upper-roman) ') '; } li::before { content: counters(listcounter, ".") " == " counters(listcounter, ".", lower-roman) ; } result decimal-leading-zero compared to lower-alpha html <ol> <li> <ol> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> ...
...And 2 more matches
Adapting to the new two-value syntax of display - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
firefox 70 implemented the two-value syntax for the display property, which is part of the css display module level 3.
... one of the first things we learn about css is that some elements are block-level and some are inline-level.
...for example to make a heading inline we would use the following css: h1 { display: inline; } more recently we have gained css grid layout and flexbox.
...And 2 more matches
<display-box> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
please note that the css display level 3 spec defines how the contents value should affect "unusual elements" — elements that aren’t rendered purely by css box concepts such as replaced elements.
...this is incorrect behavior according to the csswg specification.
... more accessible markup with display: contents | hidde de vries display: contents is not a css reset | adrian roselli examples in this first example, the paragraph with a class of secret is set to display: none; the box and any content is now not rendered.
...And 2 more matches
element() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSelement
the element() css function defines an <image> value generated from an arbitrary html element.
... this image is live, meaning that if the html element is changed, the css properties using the resulting value are automatically updated.
... on gecko browsers, you can use the non-standard document.mozsetimageelement() method to change the element being used as the background for a given css background element.
...And 2 more matches
font-family - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-family css property specifies a prioritized list of one or more font family names and/or generic family names for the selected element.
...</div> specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 4the definition of 'generic font families' in that specification.
... css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-family' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
font-variation-settings - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variation-settings css property provides low-level control over variable font characteristics, by specifying the four letter axis names of the characteristics you want to vary, along with their values.
... here are the registered axes along with their corresponding css properties: axis tag css property "wght" font-weight "wdth" font-stretch "slnt" (slant) font-style: oblique + angle "ital" font-style: italic "opsz" font-optical-sizing custom axes can be anything the font designer wants to vary in their font, for example ascender or descender heights, the size of serifs,...
... weight (wght) the following live example's css can be edited to allow you to play with font weight values.
...And 2 more matches
gap (grid-gap) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSgap
the gap css property sets the gaps (gutters) between rows and columns.
... css grid layout initially defined the grid-gap property.
... examples flex layout html <div id="flexbox"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> css #flexbox { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; width: 300px; gap: 20px 5px; } #flexbox > div { border: 1px solid green; background-color: lime; flex: 1 1 auto; width: 100px; height: 50px; } result grid layout html <div id="grid"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> css #grid...
...And 2 more matches
height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSheight
the height css property specifies the height of an element.
... </div> </div> css div { width: 250px; margin-bottom: 5px; border: 2px solid blue; } #taller { height: 50px; } #shorter { height: 25px; } #parent { height: 100px; } #child { height: 50%; width: 75%; } result specifications specification status comment css box sizing module level 4the definition of 'height' in that specification.
... editor's draft css box sizing module level 3the definition of 'height' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
image-orientation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the image-orientation css property specifies a layout-independent correction to the orientation of an image.
...will not apply any additional image rotation; the image is oriented as encoded or as other css property values dictate.
... if used in conjunction with other css properties, such as a <transform-function>, any image-orientation rotation is applied before any other transformations.
...And 2 more matches
initial - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSinitial
the initial css keyword applies the initial (or default) value of a property to an element.
... it can be applied to any css property.
... this includes the css shorthand all, with which initial can be used to restore all css properties to their initial state.
...And 2 more matches
list-style-type - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the list-style-type css property sets the marker (such as a disc, character, or custom counter style) of a list item element.
...ion typediscrete formal syntax <counter-style> | <string> | nonewhere <counter-style> = <counter-style-name> | symbols()where <counter-style-name> = <custom-ident> examples setting list item markers html list 1 <ol class="normal"> <li>hello</li> <li>world</li> <li>what's up?</li> </ol> list 2 <ol class="shortcut"> <li>looks</li> <li>like</li> <li>the</li> <li>same</li> </ol> css ol.normal { list-style-type: upper-alpha; } /* or use the shortcut "list-style": */ ol.shortcut { list-style: upper-alpha; } result specifications specification status comment css counter styles level 3the definition of 'list-style-type' in that specification.
... candidate recommendation redefines css2.1 counters.
...And 2 more matches
margin-bottom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the margin-bottom css property sets the margin area on the bottom of an element.
...entagesrefer to the width of the containing blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> | auto examples setting positive and negative bottom margins html <div class="container"> <div class="box0">box 0</div> <div class="box1">box 1</div> <div class="box2">box one's negative margin pulls me up</div> </div> css css for divs to set margin-bottom and height .box0 { margin-bottom:1em; height:3em; } .box1 { margin-bottom:-1.5em; height:4em; } .box2 { border:1px dashed black; border-width:1px 0; margin-bottom:2em; } some definitions for container and divs so margins' effects can be seen more clearly .container { background-color:orange; width:320px; border:1px so...
...lid black; } div { width:320px; background-color:gold; } result specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'margin-bottom' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
margin-right - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the margin-right css property sets the margin area on the right side of an element.
...he width of the containing blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> | auto examples setting right margin using pixels and percentages .content { margin-right: 5%; } .sidebox { margin-right: 10px; } .logo { margin-right: -5px; } specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'margin-right' in that specification.
... working draft no significant change css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'margin-right' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
margin - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmargin
the margin css property sets the margin area on all four sides of an element.
... formal syntax [ <length> | <percentage> | auto ]{1,4} examples simple example html <div class="center">this element is centered.</div> <div class="outside">this element is positioned outside of its container.</div> css .center { margin: auto; background: lime; width: 66%; } .outside { margin: 3rem 0 0 -3rem; background: cyan; width: 66%; } more examples margin: 5%; /* all sides: 5% margin */ margin: 10px; /* all sides: 10px margin */ margin: 1.6em 20px; /* top and bottom: 1.6em margin */ /* left and right: 20px margin */ mar...
... specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'margin' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
object-fit - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the object-fit css property sets how the content of a replaced element, such as an <img> or <video>, should be resized to fit its container.
...48a9938d9.png" alt="mdn logo"> <img class="none narrow" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/ae/248a9938d9.png" alt="mdn logo"> <h2>object-fit: scale-down</h2> <img class="scale-down" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/ae/248a9938d9.png" alt="mdn logo"> <img class="scale-down narrow" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/ae/248a9938d9.png" alt="mdn logo"> </section> css h2 { font-family: courier new, monospace; font-size: 1em; margin: 1em 0 0.3em; } div { display: flex; flex-direction: column; flex-wrap: wrap; align-items: flex-start; height: 940px; } img { width: 150px; height: 100px; border: 1px solid #000; } .narrow { width: 100px; height: 150px; margin-top: 10px; } .fill { object-fit: fill; } .contain { object-fit: conta...
...in; } .cover { object-fit: cover; } .none { object-fit: none; } .scale-down { object-fit: scale-down; } result specifications specification status comment css images module level 4the definition of 'object-fit' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
offset-path - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the offset-path css property specifies a motion path for an element to follow and defines the element's positioning within the parent container or svg coordinate system.
...0 260,80 q 290,20 400,0 q 300,100 400,200'); /* geometry boxes */ offset-path: margin-box; offset-path: stroke-box; /* global values */ offset-path: inherit; offset-path: initial; offset-path: unset; values ray() taking up to three values, defines a path that is a line segment starting from the position of the box and proceeds in the direction defined by the specified angle similar to the css gradient angle where 0deg is up, with positive angles increasing in the clockwise direction, with the size value being similar to the css radial gradient size values from closest-side to farthest-corner, and the keyterm contain.
... <basic-shape> specifies a css shape including circle(), ellipse(), inset(), polygon(), or path().
...And 2 more matches
outline-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the outline-style css property sets the style of an element's outline.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax auto | <'border-style'> examples setting outline style to auto the auto value indicates a custom outline style — typically a style [that] is either a user interface default for the platform, or perhaps a style that is richer than can be described in detail in css, e.g.
... html <div> <p class="auto">outline demo</p> </div> css .auto { outline-style: auto; /* same result as "outline: auto" */ } /* to make the demo clearer */ * { outline-width: 10px; padding: 15px; } result setting outline style to dashed and dotted html <div> <div class="dotted"> <p class="dashed">outline demo</p> </div> </div> css .dotted { outline-style: dotted; /* same result as "outline: dotted" */ } .dashed { outline-style: dashed; } /* to make the demo clearer */ * { outline-width: 10px; padding: 15px; } result setting outline style to solid and double html <div> <div class="solid"> <p class="double">outline demo</p> </div> </div> css .solid { outline-style:...
...And 2 more matches
overflow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSoverflow
the overflow css shorthand property sets the desired behavior for an element's overflow — i.e.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: overflow-x overflow-y syntax /* keyword values */ overflow: visible; overflow: hidden; overflow: clip; overflow: scroll; overflow: auto; overflow: hidden visible; /* global values */ overflow: inherit; overflow: initial; overflow: unset; the overflow property is specified as one or two keywords chosen from the list of values below.
...in about:config, set layout.css.overflow.moz-scrollbars.enabled to true description overflow options include clipping, showing scrollbars, or displaying the content flowing out of its container into the surrounding area.
...And 2 more matches
paint() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSpaint
the paint() css function defines an <image> value generated with a paintworklet.
... parameters optional additional parameters to pass to the paintworklet examples you can pass additional arguments via the css paint() function.
... <li>item 2</li> <li>item 3</li> <li>item 4</li> <li>item 5</li> <li>item 6</li> <li>item 7</li> <li>item 8</li> <li>item 9</li> <li>item 10</li> <li>item 11</li> <li>item 12</li> <li>item 13</li> <li>item 14</li> <li>item 15</li> <li>item 16</li> <li>item 17</li> <li>item 18</li> <li>item 19</li> <li>item 20</li> </ul> css.paintworklet.addmodule('https://mdn.github.io/houdini-examples/csspaint/intro/worklets/hilite.js'); li { --boxcolor: hsla(55, 90%, 60%, 1.0); background-image: paint(hollowhighlights, stroke, 2px); } li:nth-of-type(3n) { --boxcolor: hsla(155, 90%, 60%, 1.0); background-image: paint(hollowhighlights, filled, 3px); } li:nth-of-type(3n+1) { --boxcolor: hsla(255, 90%, 60%, 1.0); ...
...And 2 more matches
resize - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSresize
the resize css property sets whether an element is resizable, and if so, in which directions.
... html <textarea>type some text here.</textarea> css textarea { resize: none; /* disables resizability */ } result using resize with arbitrary elements you can use the resize property to make any element resizable.
... html <div class="resizable"> <p class="resizable"> this paragraph is resizable in all directions, because the css `resize` property is set to `both` on this element.
...And 2 more matches
revert - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSrevert
the revert css keyword reverts the cascaded value of the property from its current value to the value the property would have had if no changes had been made by the current style origin to the current element.
...it can be applied to any css property, including the css shorthand all.
... the revert keyword is different from and should not be confused with initial, which uses the initial value defined on a per-property basis by the css specifications.
...And 2 more matches
right - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSright
the right css property participates in specifying the horizontal position of a positioned element.
...g blockcomputed valueif specified as a length, the corresponding absolute length; if specified as a percentage, the specified value; otherwise, autoanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <length> | <percentage> | auto examples absolute and relative positioning using right html <div id="relative">relatively positioned</div> <div id="absolute">absolutely positioned</div> css #relative { width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: #ffc7e4; position: relative; top: 20px; left: 20px; } #absolute { width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: #ffd7c2; position: absolute; bottom: 10px; right: 20px; } result declaring both left and right when both left and right are declared, the element will stretch to meet both, unless other constr...
... html <div id="parent">parent <div id="nowidth">no width</div> <div id="width">width: 100px</div> </div> css div { outline: 1px solid #cccccc; } #parent { width: 200px; height: 200px; background-color: #ffc7e4; position: relative; } /* declare both a left and a right */ #width, #nowidth { background-color: #c2ffd7; position: absolute; left: 0; right: 0; } /* declare a width */ #width { width: 100px; top: 60px; } result specifications specification status com...
...And 2 more matches
shape-outside - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the shape-outside css property defines a shape—which may be non-rectangular—around which adjacent inline content should wrap.
... <shape-box> the float area is computed according to the shape of a float element's edges (as defined by the css box model).
... </p> </div> css .main { width: 530px; } .left, .right { width: 40%; height: 12ex; background-color: lightgray; } .left { -webkit-shape-outside: polygon(0 0, 100% 100%, 0 100%); shape-outside: polygon(0 0, 100% 100%, 0 100%); float: left; -webkit-clip-path: polygon(0 0, 100% 100%, 0 100%); clip-path: polygon(0 0, 100% 100%, 0 100%); } .right { -webkit-shape-outside: polygon(100% 0, 100% 10...
...And 2 more matches
text-indent - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-indent css property sets the length of empty space (indentation) that is put before lines of text in a block.
...e?where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples simple indent html <p>lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p> <p>lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p> css p { text-indent: 5em; background: powderblue; } result percentage indent html <p>lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p> <p>lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat.</p...
...> css p { text-indent: 30%; background: plum; } result specifications specification status comment css text module level 3the definition of 'text-indent' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
text-overflow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-overflow css property sets how hidden overflow content is signaled to users.
...to make text overflow its container you have to set other css properties: overflow and white-space.
... formal definition initial valueclipapplies toblock container elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax [ clip | ellipsis | <string> ]{1,2} examples css p { width: 200px; border: 1px solid; padding: 2px 5px; /* both of the following are required for text-overflow */ white-space: nowrap; overflow: hidden; } .overflow-visible { white-space: initial; } .overflow-clip { text-overflow: clip; } .overflow-ellipsis { text-overflow: ellipsis; } .overflow-string { /* not supported in most browsers, see the 'browser compatibil...
...And 2 more matches
text-shadow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-shadow css property adds shadows to text.
...adow { text-shadow: 1px 1px 2px black, 0 0 1em blue, 0 0 0.2em blue; color: white; font: 1.5em georgia, serif; } <p class="white-text-with-blue-shadow">sed ut perspiciatis unde omnis iste natus error sit voluptatem accusantium doloremque laudantium, totam rem aperiam, eaque ipsa quae ab illo inventore.</p> specifications specification status comment css text decoration module level 3the definition of 'text-shadow' in that specification.
... candidate recommendation the css property text-shadow was improperly defined in css2 and dropped in css2 (level 1).
...And 2 more matches
<transform-function> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <transform-function> css data type represents a transformation that affects an element's appearance.
... in css (and most computer graphics), the origin (0, 0) represents the top-left corner of any element.
...slate(100px, 100px)</option> <option>translatex(100px)</option> <option>translatey(100px)</option> <option>translatez(100px)</option> <option>translate3d(50px, 50px, 50px)</option> <option>perspective(200px)</option> <option>matrix(1, 2, -1, 1, 80, 80)</option> <option>matrix3d(1,0,0,0,0,1,3,0,0,0,1,0,50,100,0,1.1)</option> </select> </div> </main> css main { width: 400px; height: 200px; padding: 50px; background-image: linear-gradient(135deg, white, cyan, white); } #example-element { width: 100px; height: 100px; transform-style: preserve-3d; transition: transform 1.5s; transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg); } .face { display: flex; align-items: center; justify-content: center; width: 100%; height: 100%; position:...
...And 2 more matches
white-space - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the white-space css property sets how white space inside an element is handled.
...nitial valuenormalapplies toall elementsinheritedyescomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax normal | pre | nowrap | pre-wrap | pre-line | break-spaces examples basic example code { white-space: pre; } line breaks inside <pre> elements pre { word-wrap: break-word; /* ie 5.5-7 */ white-space: pre-wrap; /* modern browsers */ } in action html <div id="css-code" class="box"> p { white-space: <select> <option>normal</option> <option>nowrap</option> <option>pre</option> <option>pre-wrap</option> <option>pre-line</option> <option>break-spaces</option> </select> } </div> <div id="results" class="box"> <p> lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magn...
... excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.</p> </div> .box { width: 300px; padding: 16px; border-radius: 10px; } #css-code { background-color: rgb(220, 220, 220); font-size: 16px; font-family: monospace; } #css-code select { font-family: inherit; } #results { background-color: rgb(230, 230, 230); overflow-x: scroll; height: 400px; white-space: normal; font-size: 14px; } var select = document.queryselector("#css-code select"); var results = document.queryselector("#results p"); select.addeve...
...And 2 more matches
width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSwidth
the width css property sets an element's width.
...<p class="maxgreen">the mozilla community produces a lot of great software.</p> min-content p.minblue { background: lightblue; width: -moz-min-content; /* firefox */ width: -webkit-min-content; /* chrome */ width: min-content; } <p class="minblue">the mozilla community produces a lot of great software.</p> specifications specification status comment css box sizing module level 4the definition of 'width' in that specification.
... editor's draft css box sizing module level 3the definition of 'width' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
word-spacing - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the word-spacing css property sets the length of space between words and between tags.
... examples html <div id="mozdiv1">here are many words...</div> <div id="mozdiv2">...and many more!</div> css #mozdiv1 { word-spacing: 15px; } #mozdiv2 { word-spacing: 5em; } accessibility concerns a large positive or negative word-spacing value will make the sentences the styling is applied to unreadable.
...rst-line.inheritedyespercentagesrefer to the width of the affected glyphcomputed valuean optimum, minimum, and maximum value, each consisting of either an absolute length, a percentage, or the keyword normalanimation typea length formal syntax normal | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> specifications specification status comment css text module level 3the definition of 'word-spacing' in that specification.
...And 2 more matches
CSS preprocessor - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms
a css preprocessor is a program that lets you generate css from the preprocessor's own unique syntax.
... there are many css preprocessors to choose from, however most css preprocessors will add some features that don't exist in pure css, such as mixin, nesting selector, inheritance selector, and so on.
... these features make the css structure more readable and easier to maintain.
... to use a css preprocessor, you must install a css compiler on your web server; or use the css preprocessor to compile on the development environment, and then upload compiled css file to the web server.
Use CSS to solve common problems - Learn web development
LearnCSSHowto
the following links provide solutions to common problems you may face when working with css.
... common use cases basics how to apply css to the dom how to use whitespace in css how to write comments in css how to select elements via element name, class or id how to select elements via attribute name and content how to use pseudo-classes how to use pseudo-elements how to apply multiple selectors to the same rule how to specify colors in css how to debug css in the browser css and text how to style text how to customize a list of elements how to style links how to add shadows to text boxes and layouts how to size css boxes how to control overflowing content how to control the part of a css box that the background is drawn under how do i define inline, block, and inline-block?
... how to change the box model completely using box-sizing how to control backgrounds how to control borders how to style an html table how to add shadows to boxes uncommon and advanced techniques css allows some advanced design techniques.
... general how to calculate specificity of a css selector how to control inheritance in css advanced effects how to use filters in css how to use blend modes in css layout using css flexible boxes using css multi-column layouts using css generated content ...
CSS Flexbox Inspector: Examine Flexbox layouts - Firefox Developer Tools
the flexbox inspector allows you to examine css flexbox layouts using the firefox devtools, which is useful for discovering flex containers on a page, examining and modifying them, debugging layout issues, and more.
... this header is a flex container: each navbar link is a flex item: the nav element within the header is both a flex item and a flex container which holds the navigation links: in the css pane in the css pane's rules view, any instance of a display: flex declaration gets a small flexbox icon next to the word flex.
... clicking the icon toggles the display of an overlay on the page, which appears over the selected flex container that displays an outline around each flex item: the overlay will still be shown when you select other elements from the inspector panel, so you can edit related css properties and see how the flex items are affected by your changes.
... the layout flex container section the css pane's layout view includes a collapsible "flex container" section.
CSS.escape() - Web APIs
WebAPICSSescape
the css.escape() static method returns a cssomstring containing the escaped string passed as parameter, mostly for use as part of a css selector.
... syntax escapedstr = css.escape(str); parameters str the cssomstring to be escaped.
... examples basic results css.escape(".foo#bar") // "\.foo\#bar" css.escape("()[]{}") // "\(\)\[\]\{\}" css.escape('--a') // "--a" css.escape(0) // "\30 ", the unicode code point of '0' is 30 css.escape('\0') // "\ufffd", the unicode replacement character in context uses to escape a string for use as part of a selector, the escape() method can be used: var element = document.queryselector('#' + css.escape(id) + ' > img'); the escape() method can also be used for escaping strings, although it escapes characters that don't strictly need to be escaped: var element = document.queryselector('a[href="#' + css.escape(fragment) + '"]'); specification specification status comment css object model (cssom)the defin...
...ition of 'css.escape()' in that specification.
CSS numeric factory functions - Web APIs
the css numeric factory functions, such as css.em() and css.turn() are methods that return cssunitvalues with the value being the numeric argument and the unit being the name of the method used.
... these functions create new numeric values less verbosely than using the cssunitvalue.cssunitvalue() constructor.
... syntax css.number(number); css.percent(number); // <length> css.em(number); css.ex(number); css.ch(number); css.ic(number); css.rem(number); css.lh(number); css.rlh(number); css.vw(number); css.vh(number); css.vi(number); css.vb(number); css.vmin(number); css.vmax(number); css.cm(number); css.mm(number); css.q(number); css.in(number); css.pt(number); css.pc(number); css.px(number); // <angle> css.deg(number); css.grad(number); css.rad(number); css.turn(number); // <time> css.s(number); css.ms(number); // <frequency> css.hz(number); css.khz(number); // <resolution> css.dpi(number); css.dpcm(number); css.dppx(number); // <flex> css.fr(number); examples we use the css.vmax() numeric factory function to create a cssunitvalue: let height = css.vmax(50); console.log( height ); //...
... cssunitvalue {value: 50, unit: "vmax"} console.log( height.value ) // 50 console.log( height.unit ) // vmax in this example, we set the margin on our element using the css.px() factory function: myelement.attributestylemap.set('margin', css.px(40)); let currentmargin = myelement.attributestylemap.get('margin'); console.log(currentmargin.value, currentmargin.unit); // 40, 'px' specification specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'numeric factory functions' in that specification.
CSS.registerProperty() - Web APIs
the css.registerproperty() method registers custom properties, allowing for property type checking, default values, and properties that do or do not inherit their value.
... syntax css.registerproperty(propertydefinition); parameters a propertydefinition dictionary object, which can contain the following members: name a domstring indicating the name of the property being defined.
... examples the following will register a custom property, --my-color, using registerproperty(), as a color, give it a default value, and have it not inherit its value: window.css.registerproperty({ name: '--my-color', syntax: '<color>', inherits: false, initialvalue: '#c0ffee', }); in this example, the custom property --my-color has been registered using the syntax <color> .
...egistered)); transition: --unregistered 1s ease-in-out; } .unregistered:hover, .unregistered:focus { --unregistered: #b4d455; } button { font-size: 3vw; } we can add these styles to some buttons: <button class="registered">background registered</button> <button class="unregistered">background not registered</button> specifications specification status comment css properties and values api level 1the definition of 'the registerproperty() function' in that specification.
CSSImageValue - Web APIs
the cssimagevalue interface of the css typed object model api represents values for properties that take an image, for example background-image, list-style-image, or border-image-source.
... the cssimagevalue object represents an <image> that involves an url, such as url() or image(), but not linear-gradient() or element() .
... examples we create an element <button>magic wand</button> we add some css, including a background image requesting a binary file: button { display: inline-block; min-height: 100px; min-width: 100px; background: no-repeat 5% center url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/16793/magicwand.png) aqua; } we get the element's style map.
... we then get() the background-image from the stylemap and stringify it: // get the element const button = document.queryselector( 'button' ); // retrieve all computed styles with computedstylemap() const allcomputedstyles = button.computedstylemap(); // return the cssimagevalue example console.log( allcomputedstyles.get('background-image') ); console.log( allcomputedstyles.get('background-image').tostring() ); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssimagevalue' in that specification.
CSSKeywordValue.value - Web APIs
the value property of the csskeywordvalue interface returns or sets the value of the csskeywordvalue.
... syntax var val = csskeywordvalue.value csskeywordvalue.value = val value a usvstring.
... examples the following example resets the css display property to its defaults.
... let indicator = document.getelementbyid('indicator'); indicator.attributestylemap.set('display', new csskeywordvalue('initial')); indicator.attributestylemap.get('display').value // 'initial' specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'undefined' in that specification.
CSSMathProduct - Web APIs
the cssmathproduct interface of the css typed object model api represents the result obtained by calling add(), sub(), or tosum() on cssnumericvalue.
... constructor cssmathproduct.cssmathproduct() creates a new cssmathproduct object.
... properties cssmathproduct.values returns a cssnumericarray object which contains one or more cssnumericvalue objects.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssmathproduct' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.add() - Web APIs
the add() method of the cssnumericvalue interface adds a supplied number to the cssnumericvalue.
... syntax var cssmathsum = cssnumericvalue.add(double | cssnumericvalue); parameters number either a number or a cssnumericvalue.
... return value a cssmathsum exceptions typeerror indicates that an invalid type was passed to the method.
... examples let mathsum = css.px("23").add(css.percent("4")).add(css.cm("3")).add(css.in("9")); // prints "calc(23px + 4% + 3cm + 9in)" console.log(mathsum.tostring()); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'add' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.div() - Web APIs
the div() method of the cssnumericvalue interface divides the cssnumericvalue by the supplied value.
... syntax var cssnumericvalue = cssnumericvalue.div(number); parameters number either a number or a cssnumericvalue.
... return value a cssmathproduct.
... examples let mathproduct = css.px("24").div(css.percent("4")); // prints "calc(24px / 4%)" mathproduct.tostring(); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'div' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.mul() - Web APIs
the mul() method of the cssnumericvalue interface multiplies the cssnumericvalue by the supplied value.
... syntax var cssmathproduct = cssnumericvalue.mul(number); parameters number either a number or a cssnumericvalue.
... return value a cssmathproduct exceptions typeerror indicates that an invalid type was passed to the method.
... examples let mathsum = css.px("23").mul(css.percent("4")).mul(css.cm("3")).mul(css.in("9")); // prints "calc(23px * 4% * 3cm * 9in)" console.log(mathsum.tostring()); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'mul' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.sub() - Web APIs
the sub() method of the cssnumericvalue interface subtracts a supplied number from the cssnumericvalue.
... syntax var cssmathsum = cssnumericvalue.sub(number); parameters number either a number or a cssmathsum.
... return value a cssmathsum exceptions typeerror indicates that an invalid type was passed to the method.
... examples let mathsum = css.px("23").sum(css.percent("4")).sum(css.cm("3")).sum(css.in("9")); // prints "calc(23px - 4% - 3cm - 9in)" console.log(mathsum.tostring()); and/or include a list of links to useful code samples that live elsewhere: specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'sub' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.to() - Web APIs
the to() method of the cssnumericvalue interface converts a numberic value from one unit to another.
... syntax var cssunitvalue = cssnumericvalue.to(unit); parameters unit the unit to which you want to convert.
... return value a cssmathsum.
... examples // prints "0.608542cm" console.log(css.px("23").to("com").tostring()); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'to' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.toSum() - Web APIs
the tosum() method of the cssnumericvalue interface converts the object's value to a cssmathsum object to values of the specified unit.
... syntax var cssmathsum = cssnumericvalue.tosum(units); parameters units the units to convert to.
... return value a cssnumericvalue.
... examples let v = css.px("23").add(css.percent("4")).add(css.cm("3")).add(css.in("9")); v.tostring() // => "calc(23px + 4% + 3cm + 9in)" v.tosum("px", "percent").tostring() // => "calc(1000.39px + 4%)" specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'tosum' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.type - Web APIs
the type() method of the cssnumericvalue interface returns the type of cssnumericvalue, one of angle, flex, frequency, length, resolution, percent, percenthint, or time.
... syntax var cssnumerictype = cssnumericvalue.type(); parameters none.
... return value a cssnumerictype object.
... examples let mathsum = css.px("23").sub(css.percent("4")).sub(css.cm("3")).sub(css.in("9")); // returns an object with the structure: {length: 1, percenthint: "length"} let cssnumerictype = mathsum.type(); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'type' in that specification.
CSSOMString - Web APIs
cssomstring is used to denote string data in cssom specifications and can refer to either domstring or usvstring.
... when a specification says cssomstring, it depends on the browser vendors to choose whether to use domstring or usvstring.
... while browser implementations that use utf-8 internally to represent strings in memory can use usvstring when the specification says cssomstring, implementations that already represent strings as 16-bit sequences might choose to use domstring instead.
... implementation differences browser domstring or usvstring for cssomstring firefox (gecko) usvstring chrome (blink) usvstring safari (webkit) usvstring edge (edgehtml) - opera (blink) usvstring specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssomstring' in that specification.
CSSPseudoElement.element - Web APIs
the element read-only property of the csspseudoelement interface returns a reference to the originating element of the pseudo-element, in other words its parent element.
... syntax var originatingelement = csspseudoelement.element; value an element representing the pseudo-element's originating element.
... examples the example below demonstrates the relationship between csspseudoelement.element and element.pseudo(): const myelement = document.queryselector('q'); const csspseudoelement = myelement.pseudo('::after'); const originatingelement = csspseudoelement.element; console.log(myelement === originatingelement); // outputs true console.log(myelement.parentelement === originatingelement); // outputs false console.log(myelement.lastelementchild === csspseudoelement); // outputs false console.log(myelement.lastchild === csspseudoelement); // outputs false console.log(myelement.nextelementsibling === csspseudoelement); // outputs false console.log(myelement.nextsibling === csspseudoelement); // outputs false specifications specification sta...
...tus comment css pseudo-elements level 4the definition of 'element' in that specification.
CSSStyleDeclaration.item() - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration.item() method interface returns a css property name from a cssstyledeclaration by index.
... return value propertyname is a domstring that is the name of the css property at the specified index.
... javascript has a special simpler syntax for obtaining an item from a nodelist by index: var propertyname = style[index]; example var style = document.getelementbyid('div1').style; var propertyname = style.item(1); // or simply style[1] - returns the second style listed specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstyledeclaration.item()' in that specification.
... working draft document object model (dom) level 2 style specificationthe definition of 'cssstyledeclaration' in that specification.
CSSStyleDeclaration.removeProperty() - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration.removeproperty() method interface removes a property from a css style declaration object.
... return value oldvalue is a domstring equal to the value of the css property before it was removed.
... example the following javascript code removes the background-color css property from a selector rule: var declaration = document.stylesheets[0].rules[0].style; var oldvalue = declaration.removeproperty('background-color'); specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstyledeclaration.removeproperty()' in that specification.
... working draft document object model (dom) level 2 style specificationthe definition of 'cssstyledeclaration' in that specification.
CSSUnitValue.unit - Web APIs
WebAPICSSUnitValueunit
the cssunitvalue.unit read-only property of the cssunitvalue interface returns a usvstring indicating the type of unit.
... syntax var astring = cssunitvalue.unit; value a usvstring.
... examples the following creates a csspositionvalue from individual cssunitvalue constructors, then queries the cssunitvalue.unit.
... let pos = new csspositionvalue( new cssunitvalue( 5, "px" ), new cssunitvalue( 10, "em" )); console.log( pos.x.unit ); // "px" console.log( pos.y.unit ); // "em" specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssunitvalue.unit' in that specification.
CSSUnitValue.value - Web APIs
the cssunitvalue.value property of the cssunitvalue interface returns a double indicating the number of units.
... syntax var cssunitvalue = cssunitvalue.value; cssunitvalue.value = cssunitvalue; value a double.
... examples the following creates a csspositionvalue from individual cssunitvalue constructors, then queries the cssunitvalue.value.
... let pos = new csspositionvalue( new cssunitvalue( 5, "px" ), new cssunitvalue( 10, "px" )); console.log( pos.x.value ); // 5 console.log( pos.y.value ); // 10 specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssunitvalue.value' in that specification.
CSSUnparsedValue.entries() - Web APIs
the cssunparsedvalue.entries() method returns an array of a given object's own enumerable property [key, value] pairs in the same order as that provided by a for...in loop (the difference being that a for-in loop enumerates properties in the prototype chain as well).
... syntax cssunparsedvalue.entries(obj) parameters obj the cssunparsedvalue whose enumerable own property [key, value] pairs are to be returned.
... return value an array of the given cssunparsedvalue object's own enumerable property [key, value] pairs.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'entries()' in that specification.
CSSUnparsedValue.forEach() - Web APIs
the cssunparsedvalue.foreach() method executes a provided function once for each element of the cssunparsedvalue.
... syntax cssunparsedvalue.foreach(function callback(currentvalue[, index[, array]]) { // your iterator }[, thisarg]); parameters callback the function to execute for each element, taking three arguments: currentvalue the value of the current element being processed.
... arrayoptional the cssunparsedvalue that foreach() is being called on.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'foreach()' in that specification.
ElementCSSInlineStyle - Web APIs
the elementcssinlinestyle mixin describes cssom-specific features common to the htmlelement, svgelement and mathmlelement interfaces.
... note: elementcssinlinestyle is a mixin and not an interface; you can't actually create an object of type elementcssinlinestyle.
...when getting, it returns a cssstyledeclaration object that contains a list of all styles properties for that element with values assigned for the attributes that are defined in the element's inline style attribute.methodsthis interface has no methods.
... specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'htmlorforeignelement' in that specification.
-moz-image-rect - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -moz-image-rect value for css background-image lets you use a portion of a larger image as a background.
...however, this can be used for any css background.
... the syntax for the rectangle is similar to the rect() function generating a <<shape>()> css type.
... css the css defines one container style, then the styles for the four boxes that comprise the complete image.
-moz-outline-radius-bottomleft - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in mozilla applications, the -moz-outline-radius-bottomleft css property can be used to round the bottom-left corner of an element's outline.
... syntax the value of -moz-outline-radius-bottomleft is either a css <length> or a percentage of the corresponding dimensions of the border box.
... values <length> the radius of the circle defining the curvature of the bottom and left edges of the element, specified as a css <length>.
... html <p>look at this paragraph's bottom-left corner.</p> css p { margin: 10px; border: solid cyan; outline: dotted green; -moz-outline-radius-bottomleft: 2em; } result specifications not part of any standard.
-moz-outline-radius-bottomright - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in mozilla applications, the -moz-outline-radius-bottomright css property can be used to round the bottom-right corner of an element's outline.
... syntax the value of -moz-outline-radius-bottomright is either a css <length> or a percentage of the corresponding dimensions of the border box.
... values <length> the radius of the circle defining the curvature of the bottom and right edges of the element, specified as a css <length>.
... formal definition initial value0applies toall elementsinheritednopercentagesrefer to the corresponding dimension of the border boxcomputed valueas specifiedanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <outline-radius>where <outline-radius> = <length> | <percentage> examples html <p>look at this paragraph's bottom-right corner.</p> css p { margin: 5px; border: solid cyan; outline: dotted red; -moz-outline-radius-bottomright: 2em; } result the example above will not display the desired effect if you are viewing this in a browser other than firefox.
-moz-outline-radius-topleft - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in mozilla applications, the -moz-outline-radius-topleft css property can be used to round the top-left corner of an element's outline.
... syntax the value of -moz-outline-radius-topleft is either a css <length> or a percentage of the corresponding dimensions of the border box.
... values <length> the radius of the circle defining the curvature of the top and left edges of the element, specified as a css <length>.
... html <p>look at this paragraph's top-left corner.</p> css p { margin: 5px; border: solid cyan; outline: dotted red; -moz-outline-radius-topleft: 2em; } result specifications not part of any standard.
-moz-outline-radius-topright - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in mozilla applications, the -moz-outline-radius-topright css property can be used to round the top-right corner of an element's outline.
... syntax the value of -moz-outline-radius-topright is either a css <length> or a percentage of the corresponding dimensions of the border box.
... values <length> the radius of the circle defining the curvature of the top and right edges of the element, specified as a css <length>.
... formal definition initial value0applies toall elementsinheritednopercentagesrefer to the corresponding dimension of the border boxcomputed valueas specifiedanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <outline-radius>where <outline-radius> = <length> | <percentage> examples html <p>look at this paragraph's top-right corner.</p> css p { margin: 5px; border: solid cyan; outline: dotted red; -moz-outline-radius-topright: 2em; } result the example above will not display the desired effect if you are viewing this in a browser other than firefox.
-webkit-text-stroke - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-text-stroke css property specifies the width and color of strokes for text characters.
... /* width and color values */ -webkit-text-stroke: 4px navy; text-stroke: 4px navy; /* global values */ -webkit-text-stroke: inherit; -webkit-text-stroke: initial; -webkit-text-stroke: unset; text-stroke: inherit; text-stroke: initial; text-stroke: unset; constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: -webkit-stroke-color -webkit-stroke-width syntax values <length> the width of the stroke.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples adding a red text stroke html <p id="example">the stroke of this text is red.</p> css #example { font-size: 3em; margin: 0; -webkit-text-stroke: 2px red; } result specifications specification status comment compatibility standardthe definition of '-webkit-text-stroke' in that specification.
... living standard initial standardization safari css reference '-webkit-text-stroke' in that document.
::marker - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS::marker
the ::marker css pseudo-element selects the marker box of a list item, which typically contains a bullet or number.
... ::marker { color: blue; font-size: 1.2em; } allowable properties only certain css properties can be used in a rule with ::marker as a selector: all font properties the white-space property color text-combine-upright, unicode-bidi and direction properties the content property all animation and transition properties the specification states that additional css properties may be supported in future.
... syntax ::marker examples html <ul> <li>peaches</li> <li>apples</li> <li>plums</li> </ul> css ul li::marker { color: red; font-size: 1.5em; } result specifications specification status comment css pseudo-elements level 4the definition of '::marker' in that specification.
... css lists module level 3the definition of '::marker' in that specification.
:blank - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:blank
note: the :blank selector is considered at risk, as the csswg keeps changing it.
... see csswg issue #1967.
... the :blank css pseudo-class selects empty user input elements (eg.
... html <textarea></textarea> css textarea:blank { border: 3px solid red; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':blank' in that specification.
:focus - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:focus
the :focus css pseudo-class represents an element (such as a form input) that has received focus.
... syntax :focus examples html <input class="red-input" value="i'll be red when focused."><br> <input class="blue-input" value="i'll be blue when focused."> css .red-input:focus { background: yellow; color: red; } .blue-input:focus { background: yellow; color: blue; } result accessibility concerns make sure the visual focus indicator can be seen by people with low vision.
... quick tip: never remove css outlines specifications specification status comment html living standardthe definition of ':focus' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of ':focus' in that specification.
:fullscreen - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :fullscreen css pseudo-class matches every element which is currently in full-screen mode.
... html the page's html looks like this: <h1>mdn web docs demo: :fullscreen pseudo-class</h1> <p>this demo uses the <code>:fullscreen</code> pseudo-class to automatically change the style of a button used to toggle full-screen mode on and off, entirely using css.</p> <button id="fs-toggle">toggle fullscreen</button> the <button> with the id "fs-toggle" will change between pale red and pale green depending on whether or not the document is in full-screen mode.
... css the magic happens in the css.
... #fs-toggle:not(:fullscreen) { background-color: #afa; } when the document is in full-screen mode, the following css applies instead, setting the background color to a pale shade of red.
:hover - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:hover
the :hover css pseudo-class matches when the user interacts with an element with a pointing device, but does not necessarily activate it.
... syntax :hover examples basic example html <a href="#">try hovering over this link.</a> css a { background-color: powderblue; transition: background-color .5s; } a:hover { background-color: gold; } result image gallery you can use the :hover pseudo-class to build an image gallery with full-size images that show only when the mouse moves over a thumbnail.
... css working group drafts github issues selectors level 3the definition of ':hover' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of ':hover' in that specification.
:link - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:link
the :link css pseudo-class represents an element that has not yet been visited.
... html <a href="#ordinary-target">this is an ordinary link.</a><br> <a href="">you've already visited this link.</a><br> <a>placeholder link (won't get styled)</a> css a:link { background-color: gold; color: green; } result specifications specification status comment html living standardthe definition of ':link' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of ':link' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of ':link' in that specification.
:placeholder-shown - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :placeholder-shown css pseudo-class represents any <input> or <textarea> element that is currently displaying placeholder text.
... html <input placeholder="type something here!"> css input { border: 1px solid black; padding: 3px; } input:placeholder-shown { border-color: teal; color: purple; font-style: italic; } result overflowing text when form fields are too small, placeholder text can get cropped in an undesirable way.
... html <input id="input1" placeholder="name, rank, and serial number"> <br><br> <input id="input2" placeholder="name, rank, and serial number"> css #input2:placeholder-shown { text-overflow: ellipsis; } result customized input field the following example highlights the branch and id code fields with a custom style.
...e:</label> <input id="name" placeholder="student name"/> </p> <p> <label for="branch">enter student branch:</label> <input id="branch" placeholder="student branch"/> </p> <p> <label for="sid">enter student id:</label> <input type="number" pattern="[0-9]{8}" title="8 digit id" id="sid" class="studentid" placeholder="8 digit id"/> </p> <input type="submit"/> </form> css input { background-color: #e8e8e8; color: black; } input.studentid:placeholder-shown { background-color: yellow; color: red; font-style: italic; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':placeholder-shown' in that specification.
@charset - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@charset
the @charset css at-rule specifies the character encoding used in the style sheet.
... @charset "utf-8"; this at-rule is useful when using non-ascii characters in some css properties, like content.
... the @charset css at-rule.
...d invalid charset declarations @charset "utf-8"; /* set the encoding of the style sheet to unicode utf-8 */ @charset 'iso-8859-15'; /* invalid, wrong quoting style used */ @charset "utf-8"; /* invalid, more than one space */ @charset "utf-8"; /* invalid, there is a character (a space) before the at-rule */ @charset utf-8; /* invalid, without ' or ", the charset is not a css <string> */ specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of '@charset' in that specification.
font-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-style css descriptor allows authors to specify font styles for the fonts specified in the @font-face rule.
...the values for the css descriptor is same as that of its corresponding font property.
... @font-face { font-family: garamond; src: url('garamond-italic.ttf'); font-style: italic; } specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 4the definition of 'font-style' in that specification.
... working draft adds oblique keyword with angle value css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-style' in that specification.
-ms-high-contrast - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -ms-high-contrast css media feature is a microsoft extension that describes whether the application is being displayed in high contrast mode, and with what color variation.
... and (-ms-high-contrast: active) { /* all high contrast styling rules */ } @media screen and (-ms-high-contrast: black-on-white) { div { background-image: url('image-bw.png'); } } @media screen and (-ms-high-contrast: white-on-black) { div { background-image: url('image-wb.png'); } } accessibility concerns theming high contrast mode's theme colors come from a limited subset of deprecated css2 system colors.
... because high contrast mode themes are dynamic, use these color keywords in place of other css color values.
... content if at all possible, prefer updating html markup over modifying content using css2 system color keywords.
-webkit-device-pixel-ratio - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-device-pixel-ratio is a non-standard boolean css media feature which is an alternative to the standard resolution media feature.
... values <number> the number of device pixels used to represent each css px.
...} examples html <p>this is a test of your device's pixel density.</p> css /* exact resolution */ @media (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 1) { p { color: red; } } /* minimum resolution */ @media (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.1) { p { font-size: 1.5em; } } /* maximum resolution */ @media (-webkit-max-device-pixel-ratio: 3) { p { background: yellow; } } result specifications specification status comment compatib...
... living standard initial standardization safari css reference 'media query extensions' in that document.
-webkit-transition - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-transition boolean css media feature is a chrome extension whose value is true if the browsing context supports css transitions.
... apple has a description in safari css reference; this is now called simply transition there.
... syntax @media (-webkit-transition) { /* css to use if transitions are supported */ } examples use @supports instead do not use the -webkit-transition media feature.
... instead, test for transition support using the css @supports at-rule, like this: @supports (transition: initial) { /* css to use if transitions are supported */ } obsolete example before this became obsolete, you could use -webkit-transition in your css like this: @media (-webkit-transition) { /* css to use if transitions are supported */ } specifications not part of any standard.
aural - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediaaural
the aural css media type is used for devices that have speech output capabilities.
... syntax the aural css media type—which has been deprecated in favor of the speech media type—was used to specify a block of css that applied only when the content is being presented using a speech synthesis device.
... @media aural { /* speech-specific styles here */ } updating existing css to use the speech media type should be as simple as replacing aural with speech.
... examples basic example @media aural { body { voice-family: paul } } specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 2)the definition of 'aural' in that specification.
update - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the update css media feature can be used to test how frequently (if at all) the output device is able to modify the appearance of content.
... slow the layout may change dynamically according to the usual rules of css, but the output device is not able to render or display changes quickly enough for them to be perceived as a smooth animation.
... fast the layout may change dynamically according to the usual rules of css, and the output device is not unusually constrained in speed, so regularly-updating things like css animations can be used.
... examples html <p>if this text animates for you, you are using a fast-updating device.</p> css @keyframes jiggle { from { transform: translatey(0); } to { transform: translatey(25px); } } @media (update: fast) { p { animation: 1s jiggle linear alternate infinite; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'update' in that specification.
Coordinate systems - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this guide describes the standard coordinate systems used by the css object model.
... it's actually possible to change the definitions and orientations of these coordinate systems using css properties such as transform.
... standard cssom coordinate systems there are four standard coordinate systems used by the css object model, as described below.
... <span id="offsety">0</span> </p> <p> client-relative: <span id="clientx">0</span>, <span id="clienty">0</span> </p> <p> page-relative: <span id="pagex">0</span>, <span id="pagey">0</span> </p> <p> screen-relative: <span id="screenx">0</span>, <span id="screeny">0</span> </p> </div> </div> </div> css the css is pretty much just for appearances here.
Grid template areas - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
when you use css grid layout you always have lines, and this can be a straightforward way to place items on your grid.
...it means that you can actually see, right there in the css, what this layout looks like.
... redefining the grid using media queries as our layout is now contained in one part of the css, this makes it very easy to make changes at different breakpoints.
... </div> </div> grid definition shorthands having looked at various ways of placing items on our grids and many of the properties used to define grid, this is a good time to take a look at a couple of shorthands that are available for defining the grid and many things about it all in one line of css.
Subgrid - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
level 2 of the css grid layout specification includes a subgrid value for grid-template-columns and grid-template-rows.
... named grid lines when using css grid you can name lines on your grid and then position items based on those names rather than the line number.
... specification specification status comment css grid layout module level 2 working draft initial definition of subgrids.
...a presentation from cssconf.eu ...
Basic Shapes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css shapes can be defined using the <basic-shape> type, and in this guide i’ll explain how each of the different values accepted by this type work.
... the reference box understanding the reference box used by css shapes is important when using basic shapes, as it defines each shape's coordinate system.
... for an excellent description of references boxes as they apply to css shapes see understanding reference boxes for css shapes.
...the below css creates a rectangular shape inset from the reference box of the floated element 20 pixels from the top and bottom and 10 pixels from the left and right, with a border-radius value of 10 pixels.
Shapes from box values - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
a straightforward way to create a shape is to use a value from the css box model.
... css box model the values listed above correspond to the various parts of the css box model.
... a box in css has content, padding, border, and margin.
...you still have a border, even if you have not used the css border property.
Class selectors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css class selector matches elements based on the contents of their class attribute.
...ents with class="spacious" */ li.spacious { margin: 2em; } /* all <li> elements with a class list that includes both "spacious" and "elegant" */ /* for example, class="elegant retro spacious" */ li.spacious.elegant { margin: 2em; } syntax .class_name { style properties } note that this is equivalent to the following attribute selector: [class~=class_name] { style properties } examples css .red { color: #f33; } .yellow-bg { background: #ffa; } .fancy { font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 4px 4px 3px #77f; } html <p class="red">this paragraph has red text.</p> <p class="red yellow-bg">this paragraph has red text and a yellow background.</p> <p class="red fancy">this paragraph has red text and "fancy" styling.</p> <p>this is just a regular paragraph.</p> result specifi...
... recommendation css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'child selectors' in that specification.
... recommendation css level 1the definition of 'child selectors' in that specification.
ID selectors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css id selector matches an element based on the value of the element’s id attribute.
... /* the element with id="demo" */ #demo { border: red 2px solid; } syntax #id_value { style properties } note that syntactically (but not specificity-wise), this is equivalent to the following attribute selector: [id=id_value] { style properties } examples css #identified { background-color: skyblue; } html <div id="identified">this div has a special id on it!</div> <div>this is just a regular div.</div> result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of 'id selectors' in that specification.
... recommendation css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'id selectors' in that specification.
... recommendation css level 1the definition of 'id selectors' in that specification.
Tools - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSTools
css offers a number of powerful features that can be tricky to use, or have a number of parameters, so that it's helpful to be able to visualize them while you work on them.
... this page offers links to a number of useful tools that will help you build the css to style your content using these features.
...this is not really yet a useful tool, but will be!linear-gradient generatorthis tool can be used to create custom css3 linear-gradient() backgrounds.
... other tools css animation - stylie to check the device display information (helpful in responsive web design) - mydevice.io css menus - cssmenumaker.com a mighty, modern css linter that helps you enforce consistent conventions and avoid errors in your stylesheets - stylelint ...
Type selectors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css type selector matches elements by node name.
...*/ a { color: red; } syntax element { style properties } examples css span { background-color: skyblue; } html <span>here's a span with some text.</span> <p>here's a p with some text.</p> <span>here's a span with more text.</span> result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of 'type (tag name) selector' in that specification.
... recommendation no changes css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'type selectors' in that specification.
... recommendation css level 1the definition of 'type selectors' in that specification.
Universal selectors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css universal selector (*) matches elements of any type.
... /* selects all elements */ * { color: green; } beginning with css3, the asterisk may be used in combination with namespaces: ns|* - matches all elements in namespace ns *|* - matches all elements |* - matches all elements without any declared namespace syntax * { style properties } the asterisk is optional with simple selectors.
... examples css * [lang^=en] { color: green; } *.warning { color: red; } *#maincontent { border: 1px solid blue; } .floating { float: left } /* automatically clear the next sibling after a floating element */ .floating + * { clear: left; } html <p class="warning"> <span lang="en-us">a green span</span> in a red paragraph.
... recommendation defines behavior regarding namespaces and adds hint that omitting the selector is allowed within pseudo-elements css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'universal selector' in that specification.
align-content - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css align-content property sets the distribution of space between and around content items along a flexbox's cross-axis or a grid's block axis.
...baseline<content-distribution> = space-between | space-around | space-evenly | stretch<overflow-position> = unsafe | safe<content-position> = center | start | end | flex-start | flex-end examples css #container { height:200px; width: 240px; align-content: center; /* can be changed in the live sample */ background-color: #8c8c8c; } .flex { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; } .grid { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fill, 50px); } div > div { box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid #8c8c8c; width: 50px; display: flex; align-items: center; justify...
...'); var display = document.getelementbyid('display'); var container = document.getelementbyid('container'); values.addeventlistener('change', function (evt) { container.style.aligncontent = evt.target.value; }); display.addeventlistener('change', function (evt) { container.classname = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'align-content' in that specification.
... css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'align-content' in that specification.
align-items - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css align-items property sets the align-self value on all direct children as a group.
...baseline<overflow-position> = unsafe | safe<self-position> = center | start | end | self-start | self-end | flex-start | flex-end examples css #container { height:200px; width: 240px; align-items: center; /* can be changed in the live sample */ background-color: #8c8c8c; } .flex { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; } .grid { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fill, 50px); } div > div { box-sizing: border-box; border: 2px solid #8c8c8c; width: 50px; display: flex; align-items: center; justify-c...
...es'); var display = document.getelementbyid('display'); var container = document.getelementbyid('container'); values.addeventlistener('change', function (evt) { container.style.alignitems = evt.target.value; }); display.addeventlistener('change', function (evt) { container.classname = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'align-items' in that specification.
... css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'align-items' in that specification.
<alpha-value> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <alpha-value> css data type represents a value that can be either a <number> or a <percentage>, specifying the alpha channel or transparency of a color.
... interpolation when animated, values of the <alpha-value> css data type are interpolated as real, floating-point numbers.
...o set partially transparent text: /* <rgba()> */ color: rgba(34, 12, 64, 0.6); color: rgba(34.0 12 64 / 60%); setting shape image threshold here an alpha value is used to determine which parts of an image are considered part of a shape: /* shape-image-threshold */ shape-image-threshold: 70%; shape-image-threshold: 0.7; specifications specification status comment css color module level 4the definition of '<alpha-value>' in that specification.
... css color module level 3the definition of '<alpha-value>' in that specification.
animation-fill-mode - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-fill-mode css property sets how a css animation applies styles to its target before and after its execution.
...the element will instead be displayed using any other css rules applied to it.
... html <p>move your mouse over the gray box!</p> <div class="demo"> <div class="growsandstays">this grows and stays big.</div> <div class="grows">this just grows.</div> </div> css .demo { border-top: 100px solid #ccc; height: 300px; } @keyframes grow { 0% { font-size: 0; } 100% { font-size: 40px; } } .demo:hover .grows { animation-name: grow; animation-duration: 3s; } .demo:hover .growsandstays { animation-name: grow; animation-duration: 3s; animation-fill-mode: forwards; } see css animations for more examples.
... specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-fill-mode' in that specification.
aspect-ratio - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the aspect-ratio css property sets a preferred aspect ratio for the box, which will be used in the calculation of auto sizes and some other layout functions.
... in firefox, the internal stylesheet rule looks like this: img, input[type="image"], video, embed, iframe, marquee, object, table { aspect-ratio: attr(width) / attr(height); } specifications specification status comment css box sizing module level 4the definition of 'aspect-ratio' in that specification.
... for mapped valuesfirefox partial support 71notes partial support 71notes notes firefox 71 adds internal support only for mapped values no support 69 — 71notes disabled notes firefox 69 adds internal support only for mapped valuesdisabled from version 69 until version 71 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.width-and-height-map-to-aspect-ratio.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
... full support 79edge full support 79firefox full support 71 full support 71 no support 69 — 71disabled disabled from version 69 until version 71 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.width-and-height-map-to-aspect-ratio.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
background-clip - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-clip css property sets whether an element's background extends underneath its border box, padding box, or content box.
...rmal syntax <box>#where <box> = border-box | padding-box | content-box examples html <p class="border-box">the background extends behind the border.</p> <p class="padding-box">the background extends to the inside edge of the border.</p> <p class="content-box">the background extends only to the edge of the content box.</p> <p class="text">the background is clipped to the foreground text.</p> css p { border: .8em darkviolet; border-style: dotted double; margin: 1em 0; padding: 1.4em; background: linear-gradient(60deg, red, yellow, red, yellow, red); font: 900 1.2em sans-serif; text-decoration: underline; } .border-box { background-clip: border-box; } .padding-box { background-clip: padding-box; } .content-box { background-clip: content-box; } .text { background-clip: te...
...xt; -webkit-background-clip: text; color: rgba(0,0,0,.2); } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'background-clip' in that specification.
... css backgrounds and borders module level 4the definition of 'background-clip' in that specification.
background-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-color css property sets the background color of an element.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples html <div class="exampleone"> lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer </div> <div class="exampletwo"> lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer </div> <div class="examplethree"> lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer </div> css .exampleone { background-color: teal; color: white; } .exampletwo { background-color: rgb(153,102,153); color: rgb(255,255,204); } .examplethree { background-color: #777799; color: #ffffff; } result specifications specification comment feedback css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'background-color' in that specification.
... though technically removing the transparent keyword, this doesn't change anything as it has been incorporated as a true <color> backgrounds level 3 github issues css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'background-color' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'background-color' in that specification.
border-bottom-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-bottom-color css property sets the color of an element's bottom border.
... it can also be set with the shorthand css properties border-color or border-bottom.
... note which side of the box is <span class="redtext">red</span>.</p> </div> css .mybox { border: solid 0.3em gold; border-bottom-color: red; width: auto; } .redtext { color: red; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-bottom-color' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-bottom-color' in that specification.
border-bottom-left-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-bottom-left-radius css property rounds the bottom-left corner of an element by specifying the radius (or the radius of the semi-major and semi-minor axes) of the ellipse defining the curvature of the corner.
... note: if the value of this property is not set in a border-radius shorthand property that is applied to the element after the border-bottom-left-radius css property, the value of this property is then reset to its initial value by the shorthand property.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
... the background color is clipped at the border div { border-bottom-left-radius:40%; border-style: black 3px double; background-color: rgb(250,20,70); background-clip: content-box; } specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-bottom-left-radius' in that specification.
border-bottom-right-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-bottom-right-radius css property rounds the top-left corner of an element by specifying the radius (or the radius of the semi-major and semi-minor axes) of the ellipse defining the curvature of the corner.
... note: if the value of this property is not set in a border-radius shorthand property that is applied to the element after the border-bottom-right-radius css property, the value of this property is then reset to its initial value by the shorthand property.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
... the background color is clipped at the border div { border-bottom-right-radius:40%; border-style: black 3px double; background-color: rgb(250,20,70); background-clip: content-box; } specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-bottom-right-radius' in that specification.
border-bottom-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-bottom-style css property sets the line style of an element's bottom border.
...ating all border styles html <table> <tr> <td class="b1">none</td> <td class="b2">hidden</td> <td class="b3">dotted</td> <td class="b4">dashed</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b5">solid</td> <td class="b6">double</td> <td class="b7">groove</td> <td class="b8">ridge</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b9">inset</td> <td class="b10">outset</td> </tr> </table> css /* define look of the table */ table { border-width: 3px; background-color: #52e385; } tr, td { padding: 3px; } /* border-bottom-style example classes */ .b1 {border-bottom-style: none;} .b2 {border-bottom-style: hidden;} .b3 {border-bottom-style: dotted;} .b4 {border-bottom-style: dashed;} .b5 {border-bottom-style: solid;} .b6 {border-bottom-style: double;} .b7 {border-bottom-style: groo...
...ve;} .b8 {border-bottom-style: ridge;} .b9 {border-bottom-style: inset;} .b10 {border-bottom-style: outset;} result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-bottom-style' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-bottom-style' in that specification.
border-image - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-image css property draws an image around a given element.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-image-outset border-image-repeat border-image-slice border-image-source border-image-width syntax /* source | slice */ border-image: linear-gradient(red, blue) 27; /* source | slice | repeat */ border-image: url("/images/border.png") 27 space; /* source | slice | width */ border-image: linear-gradient(red, blue) 27 / 35px; /* source | slice | width | outset | repea...
...the source for the border image is a ".png" file of 81 by 81 pixels, with three diamonds going vertically and horizontally: html <div id="bitmap">this element is surrounded by a bitmap-based border image!</div> css to match the size of a single diamond, we will use a value of 81 divided by 3, or 27, for slicing the image into corner and edge regions.
...ding: 10px; border-image: url("https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/2c/fa0192d18e.png") /* source */ 27 / /* slice */ 36px 28px 18px 8px / /* width */ 18px 14px 9px 4px /* outset */ round; /* repeat */ } result gradient html <div id="gradient">this element is surrounded by a gradient-based border image!</div> css #gradient { width: 200px; border: 30px solid; border-image: repeating-linear-gradient(45deg, #f33, #3bf, #f33 30px) 60; padding: 20px; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-image' in that specification.
border-left-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-left-color css property sets the color of an element's left border.
... it can also be set with the shorthand css properties border-color or border-left.
... note which side of the box is <span class="redtext">red</span>.</p> </div> css .mybox { border: solid 0.3em gold; border-left-color: red; width: auto; } .redtext { color: red; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-left-color' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-left-color' in that specification.
border-left-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-left-style css property sets the line style of an element's left border.
...nset | outset examples html <table> <tr> <td class="b1">none</td> <td class="b2">hidden</td> <td class="b3">dotted</td> <td class="b4">dashed</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b5">solid</td> <td class="b6">double</td> <td class="b7">groove</td> <td class="b8">ridge</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b9">inset</td> <td class="b10">outset</td> </tr> </table> css /* define look of the table */ table { border-width: 2px; background-color: #52e385; } tr, td { padding: 3px; } /* border-left-style example classes */ .b1 {border-left-style: none;} .b2 {border-left-style: hidden;} .b3 {border-left-style: dotted;} .b4 {border-left-style: dashed;} .b5 {border-left-style: solid;} .b6 {border-left-style: double;} .b7 {border-left-style: groove;} .b8 {border...
...-left-style: ridge;} .b9 {border-left-style: inset;} .b10 {border-left-style: outset;} result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-left-style' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-left-style' in that specification.
border-left-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-left-width css property sets the width of the left border of an element.
...it also applies to ::first-letter.inheritednocomputed valuethe absolute length or 0 if border-left-style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <line-width>where <line-width> = <length> | thin | medium | thick examples comparing border widths html <div>element 1</div> <div>element 2</div> css div { border: 1px solid red; margin: 1em 0; } div:nth-child(1) { border-left-width: thick; } div:nth-child(2) { border-left-width: 2em; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-left-width' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-left-width' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'border-left-width' in that specification.
border-right-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-right-color css property sets the color of an element's right border.
... it can also be set with the shorthand css properties border-color or border-right.
... note which side of the box is <span class="redtext">red</span>.</p> </div> css .mybox { border: solid 0.3em gold; border-right-color: red; width: auto; } .redtext { color: red; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-right-color' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-right-color' in that specification.
border-right-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-right-style css property sets the line style of an element's right border.
...examples border styles html <table> <tr> <td class="b1">none</td> <td class="b2">hidden</td> <td class="b3">dotted</td> <td class="b4">dashed</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b5">solid</td> <td class="b6">double</td> <td class="b7">groove</td> <td class="b8">ridge</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b9">inset</td> <td class="b10">outset</td> </tr> </table> css /* define look of the table */ table { border-width: 2px; background-color: #52e385; } tr, td { padding: 3px; } /* border-right-style example classes */ .b1 {border-right-style: none;} .b2 {border-right-style: hidden;} .b3 {border-right-style: dotted;} .b4 {border-right-style: dashed;} .b5 {border-right-style: solid;} .b6 {border-right-style: double;} .b7 {border-right-style: groove;} .b8...
... {border-right-style: ridge;} .b9 {border-right-style: inset;} .b10 {border-right-style: outset;} result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-right-style' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-right-style' in that specification.
border-right-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-right-width css property sets the width of the right border of an element.
...it also applies to ::first-letter.inheritednocomputed valuethe absolute length or 0 if border-right-style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <line-width>where <line-width> = <length> | thin | medium | thick examples comparing border widths html <div>element 1</div> <div>element 2</div> css div { border: 1px solid red; margin: 1em 0; } div:nth-child(1) { border-right-width: thick; } div:nth-child(2) { border-right-width: 2em; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-right-width' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-right-width' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'border-right-width' in that specification.
border-top-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-top-color css property sets the color of an element's top border.
... it can also be set with the shorthand css properties border-color or border-top.
... note which side of the box is <span class="redtext">red</span>.</p> </div> css .mybox { border: solid 0.3em gold; border-top-color: red; width: auto; } .redtext { color: red; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-top-color' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-top-color' in that specification.
border-top-left-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-top-left-radius css property rounds the top-left corner of an element by specifying the radius (or the radius of the semi-major and semi-minor axes) of the ellipse defining the curvature of the corner.
... note: if the value of this property is not set in a border-radius shorthand property that is applied to the element after the border-top-left-radius css property, the value of this property is then reset to its initial value by the shorthand property.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
...ot a square: an arc of ellipse is used as the border div { border-top-left-radius: 40%; } the background color is clipped at the border div { border-top-left-radius:40%; border-style: black 3px double; background-color: rgb(250,20,70); background-clip: content-box; } specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-top-left-radius' in that specification.
border-top-right-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-top-right-radius css property rounds the top-right corner of an element by specifying the radius (or the radius of the semi-major and semi-minor axes) of the ellipse defining the curvature of the corner.
... note: if the value of this property is not set in a border-radius shorthand property that is applied to the element after the border-top-right-radius css property, the value of this property is then reset to its initial value by the shorthand property.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
... a square: an arc of ellipse is used as the border div { border-top-right-radius: 40%; } the background color is clipped at the border div { border-top-right-radius:40%; border-style: black 3px double; background-color: rgb(250,20,70); background-clip: content-box; } specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-top-right-radius' in that specification.
border-top-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-top-style css property sets the line style of an element's top border.
...nset | outset examples html <table> <tr> <td class="b1">none</td> <td class="b2">hidden</td> <td class="b3">dotted</td> <td class="b4">dashed</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b5">solid</td> <td class="b6">double</td> <td class="b7">groove</td> <td class="b8">ridge</td> </tr> <tr> <td class="b9">inset</td> <td class="b10">outset</td> </tr> </table> css /* define look of the table */ table { border-width: 2px; background-color: #52e385; } tr, td { padding: 3px; } /* border-top-style example classes */ .b1 {border-top-style: none;} .b2 {border-top-style: hidden;} .b3 {border-top-style: dotted;} .b4 {border-top-style: dashed;} .b5 {border-top-style: solid;} .b6 {border-top-style: double;} .b7 {border-top-style: groove;} .b8 {border-top-sty...
...le: ridge;} .b9 {border-top-style: inset;} .b10 {border-top-style: outset;} result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-top-style' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-top-style' in that specification.
border-top-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-top-width css property sets the width of the top border of an element.
...it also applies to ::first-letter.inheritednocomputed valuethe absolute length or 0 if border-top-style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <line-width>where <line-width> = <length> | thin | medium | thick examples html <div>element 1</div> <div>element 2</div> css div { border: 1px solid red; margin: 1em 0; } div:nth-child(1) { border-top-width: thick; } div:nth-child(2) { border-top-width: 2em; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-top-width' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-top-width' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'border-top-width' in that specification.
box-flex - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSbox-flex
it does not match either the old css flexible box layout module drafts for 'box-flex' (which were based on this property) or the behavior of '-webkit-box-flex' (which is based on those drafts).
... the -moz-box-flex and -webkit-box-flex css properties specify how a -moz-box or -webkit-box grows to fill the box that contains it, in the direction of the containing box's layout.
...this attribute does not have a corresponding css property.
... formal definition initial value0applies toelements that are direct children of an element with a css display value of -moz-box or -moz-inline-box or -webkit-box or -webkit-inline-boxinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <number> examples setting box-flex <!doctype html> <html> <head> <title>-moz-box-flex example</title> <style> div.example { display: -moz-box; display: -webkit-box; border: 1px solid black; width: 100%; } div.example > p:nth-child(1) { -moz-box-flex: 1; /* mozilla */ ...
clip-path - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSclip-path
the clip-path css property creates a clipping region that sets what part of an element should be shown.
... note: a computed value other than none results in the creation of a new stacking context the same way that css opacity does for values other than 1.
...="0" width="90" height="90"/> </clippath> </defs> </svg> <select id="clippath"> <option value="none">none</option> <option value="circle(100px at 110px 100px)">circle</option> <option value="url(#cross)" selected>cross</option> <option value="inset(20px round 20px)">inset</option> <option value="path('m 0 200 l 0,110 a 110,90 0,0,1 240,100 l 200 340 z')">path</option> </select> css #clipped { margin-bottom: 20px; clip-path: url(#cross); } javascript const clippathselect = document.getelementbyid("clippath"); clippathselect.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("clipped").style.clippath = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition...
... css shapes module level 2the definition of 'path' in that specification.
clip - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSclip
the clip css property defines a visible portion of an element.
... formal definition initial valueautoapplies toabsolutely positioned elementsinheritednocomputed valueauto if specified as auto, otherwise a rectangle with four values, each of which is auto if specified as auto or the computed length otherwiseanimation typea rectangle formal syntax <shape> | autowhere <shape> = rect(<top>, <right>, <bottom>, <left>) examples clipping an image css .dotted-border { border: dotted; position: relative; width: 536px; height: 350px; } #top-left, #middle, #bottom-right { position: absolute; top: 0; } #top-left { left: 360px; clip: rect(0 175px 113px 0); } #middle { left: 280px; clip: rect(119px 255px 229px 80px); } #bottom-right { left: 200px; clip: rect(235px 335px 345px 160px); } html <p class="dotted-border"> ...
...les/8f/15174f3500.jpg" title="graphic clipped to upper left"> <img id="middle" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/8f/15174f3500.jpg" title="graphic clipped towards middle"> <img id="bottom-right" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/8f/15174f3500.jpg" title="graphic clipped to bottom right"> </p> result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'clip' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'clip' in that specification.
column-count - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-count css property breaks an element's content into the specified number of columns.
... syntax /* keyword value */ column-count: auto; /* <integer> value */ column-count: 3; /* global values */ column-count: inherit; column-count: initial; column-count: unset; values auto the number of columns is determined by other css properties, such as column-width.
... formal definition initial valueautoapplies toblock containers except table wrapper boxesinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typean integer formal syntax <integer> | auto examples splitting a paragraph across three columns html <p class="content-box"> this is a bunch of text split into three columns using the css `column-count` property.
...</p> css .content-box { column-count: 3; } result specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'column-count' in that specification.
column-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-width css property sets the ideal column width in a multi-column layout.
... auto the width of the column is determined by other css properties, such as column-count.
...</p> css .content-box { column-width: 100px; } result specifications specification status comment css writing modes level 4the definition of 'column-width' in that specification.
... css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'column-width' in that specification.
columns - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScolumns
the columns css shorthand property sets the number of columns to use when drawing an element's contents, as well as those columns' widths.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: column-count column-width syntax /* column width */ columns: 18em; /* column count */ columns: auto; columns: 2; /* both column width and count */ columns: 2 auto; columns: auto 12em; columns: auto auto; /* global values */ columns: inherit; columns: initial; columns: unset; the columns property may be specified as one or two of the values listed below, in any order.
... of the properties of the shorthand:column-width: the absolute length, zero or largercolumn-count: as specifiedanimation typeas each of the properties of the shorthand:column-width: a lengthcolumn-count: an integer formal syntax <'column-width'> | <'column-count'> examples setting three equal columns html <p class="content-box"> this is a bunch of text split into three columns using the css `columns` property.
...</p> css .content-box { columns: 3 auto; } result specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'columns' in that specification.
counter-increment - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the counter-increment css property increases or decreases the value of a css counter by a given value.
... note: the counter's value can be reset to an arbitrary number using the counter-reset css property.
...]+ | none examples incrementing named counters h1 { counter-increment: chapter section 2 page; /* increases the value of the chapter and page counters by 1, and the section counter by 2 */ } specifications specification status comment css lists module level 3the definition of 'counter-increment' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'counter-increment' in that specification.
counter-reset - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the counter-reset css property resets a css counter to a given value.
... note: the counter's value can be increased or decreased using the counter-increment css property.
...]+ | none examples resetting named counters h1 { counter-reset: chapter section 1 page; /* sets the chapter and page counters to 0, and the section counter to 1 */ } specifications specification status comment css lists module level 3the definition of 'counter-reset' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'counter-reset' in that specification.
cross-fade() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css cross-fade() function can be used to blend two or more images at a defined transparency.
... the function can be used in css anywhere an ordinary image reference can be used.
...h>?<linear-color-hint> = <length-percentage><length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage><angular-color-stop> = <color> && <color-stop-angle>?<angular-color-hint> = <angle-percentage>where <color-stop-length> = <length-percentage>{1,2}<color-stop-angle> = <angle-percentage>{1,2}<angle-percentage> = <angle> | <percentage> examples older syntax for cross-fade html <div class="crossfade"></div> css .crossfade { width: 300px; height: 300px; background-image: -webkit-cross-fade( url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/8543/br.png'), url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/8545/tr.png'), 75%); background-image: cross-fade( url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/8543/br.png'), url('https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/8545/tr.png'), ...
... 75%); } result specifications specification status comment css images module level 4the definition of 'cross-fade()' in that specification.
cursor - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScursor
the cursor css property sets the type of mouse cursor, if any, to show when the mouse pointer is over an element.
... keyword values move your mouse over values to see their live appearance in your browser: category css value example description general auto the ua will determine the cursor to display based on the current context.
...resize | ns-resize | nesw-resize | nwse-resize | col-resize | row-resize | all-scroll | zoom-in | zoom-out | grab | grabbing ] ] examples setting cursor types .foo { cursor: crosshair; } .bar { cursor: zoom-in; } /* a fallback keyword value is required when using a url */ .baz { cursor: url("hyper.cur"), auto; } specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 3the definition of 'cursor' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'cursor' in that specification.
direction - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSdirection
the direction css property sets the direction of text, table columns, and horizontal overflow.
... unlike the dir attribute in html, the direction property is not inherited from table columns into table cells, since css inheritance follows the document tree, and table cells are inside of rows but not inside of columns.
... formal definition initial valueltrapplies toall elementsinheritedyescomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax ltr | rtl examples setting right-to-left direction blockquote { direction: rtl; } specifications specification status comment css writing modes module level 3the definition of 'direction' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'direction' in that specification.
env() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSenv
the env() css function can be used to insert the value of a user agent-defined environment variable into your css, in a similar fashion to the var() function and custom properties.
... note: unlike other css properties, user agent-defined property names are case-sensitive.
... this is because the accompanying css is the equivalent of <code>padding: 0 0 0 50px</code>, because, unlike other css properties, user agent property names are case-sensitive.
... specifications specification status comment css environment variables module level 1the definition of 'env()' in that specification.
filter - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSfilter
the filter css property applies graphical effects like blur or color shift to an element.
... included in the css standard are several functions that achieve predefined effects.
...the parameter is specified as a css length, but does not accept percentage values.
...the function accepts a parameter of type <shadow> (defined in css3 backgrounds), with the exception that the inset keyword is not allowed.
fit-content() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the fit-content() css function clamps a given size to an available size according to the formula min(maximum size, max(minimum size, argument)).
... the function can be used as a track size in css grid properties, where the maximum size is defined by max-content and the minimum size by auto, which is calculated similar to auto (i.e., minmax(auto, max-content)), except that the track size is clamped at argument if it is greater than the auto minimum.
... </div> <div>flexible item</div> </div> css #container { display: grid; grid-template-columns: fit-content(300px) fit-content(300px) 1fr; grid-gap: 5px; box-sizing: border-box; height: 200px; width: 100%; background-color: #8cffa0; padding: 10px; } #container > div { background-color: #8ca0ff; padding: 5px; } result specifications specification status comment css box sizing module lev...
... css grid layoutthe definition of 'fit-content()' in that specification.
flex-direction - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the flex-direction css property sets how flex items are placed in the flex container defining the main axis and the direction (normal or reversed).
...if the visual (css) order is important, then screen reader users will not have access to the correct reading order.
...ground-color:red;">a</div> <div class="box" style="background-color:lightblue;">b</div> <div class="box" style="background-color:yellow;">c</div> </div> <h4>this is a row-reverse</h4> <div id="content1"> <div class="box1" style="background-color:red;">a</div> <div class="box1" style="background-color:lightblue;">b</div> <div class="box1" style="background-color:yellow;">c</div> </div> css #content { width: 200px; height: 200px; border: 1px solid #c3c3c3; display: flex; flex-direction: column-reverse; } .box { width: 50px; height: 50px; } #content1 { width: 200px; height: 200px; border: 1px solid #c3c3c3; display: flex; flex-direction: row-reverse; } .box1 { width: 50px; height: 50px; } result specifications specification status c...
...omment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'flex-direction' in that specification.
flex-wrap - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSflex-wrap
the flex-wrap css property sets whether flex items are forced onto one line or can wrap onto multiple lines.
... see using css flexible boxes for more properties and information.
... <div class="green">2</div> <div class="blue">3</div> </div> <h4>this is an example for flex-wrap:nowrap </h4> <div class="content1"> <div class="red">1</div> <div class="green">2</div> <div class="blue">3</div> </div> <h4>this is an example for flex-wrap:wrap-reverse </h4> <div class="content2"> <div class="red">1</div> <div class="green">2</div> <div class="blue">3</div> </div> css /* common styles */ .content, .content1, .content2 { color: #fff; font: 100 24px/100px sans-serif; height: 150px; text-align: center; } .content div, .content1 div, .content2 div { height: 50%; width: 300px; } .red { background: orangered; } .green { background: yellowgreen; } .blue { background: steelblue; } /* flexbox styles */ .content { display: flex...
...; flex-wrap: wrap; } .content1 { display: flex; flex-wrap: nowrap; } .content2 { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap-reverse; } results specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'flex-wrap' in that specification.
flex - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSflex
the flex css shorthand property sets how a flex item will grow or shrink to fit the space available in its flex container.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: flex-grow flex-shrink flex-basis syntax /* keyword values */ flex: auto; flex: initial; flex: none; /* one value, unitless number: flex-grow */ flex: 2; /* one value, width/height: flex-basis */ flex: 10em; flex: 30%; flex: min-content; /* two values: flex-grow | flex-basis */ flex: 1 30px; /* two values: flex-grow | flex-shrink */ flex: 2 2; /* three values: flex-grow | flex-shrink | flex-basis */ flex: 2 2 10%; /* global values */ flex: inherit; flex: initial; flex: ...
...| <'flex-basis'> ] examples setting flex: auto html <div id="flex-container"> <div class="flex-item" id="flex">flex box (click to toggle raw box)</div> <div class="raw-item" id="raw">raw box</div> </div> css #flex-container { display: flex; flex-direction: row; } #flex-container > .flex-item { flex: auto; } #flex-container > .raw-item { width: 5rem; } var flex = document.getelementbyid("flex"); var raw = document.getelementbyid("raw"); flex.addeventlistener("click", function() { raw.style.display = raw.style.display == "none" ?
... "block" : "none"; }); #flex-container { width: 100%; font-family: consolas, arial, sans-serif; } #flex-container > div { border: 1px solid #f00; padding: 1rem; } #flex-container > .raw-item { border: 1px solid #000; } result specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'flex' in that specification.
font-size-adjust - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-size-adjust css property sets the size of lower-case letters relative to the current font size (which defines the size of upper-case letters).
...er formal syntax none | <number> examples adjusting lower-case letter sizes html <p class="times">this text uses the times font (10px), which is hard to read in small sizes.</p> <p class="verdana">this text uses the verdana font (10px), which has relatively large lowercase letters.</p> <p class="adjtimes">this is the 10px times, but now adjusted to the same aspect ratio as the verdana.</p> css .times { font-family: times, serif; font-size: 10px; } .verdana { font-family: verdana, sans-serif; font-size: 10px; } .adjtimes { font-family: times, serif; font-size-adjust: 0.58; font-size: 10px; } results specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-size-adjust' in that specification.
... candidate recommendation initial definition the css property font-size-adjust was initially defined in css 2, but dropped in css 2.1.
... it has been newly defined in css 3.
font-variant-caps - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variant-caps css property controls the use of alternate glyphs for capital letters.
...it also applies to ::first-letter and ::first-line.inheritedyescomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax normal | small-caps | all-small-caps | petite-caps | all-petite-caps | unicase | titling-caps examples setting the small-caps font variant html <p class="small-caps">firefox rocks, small caps!</p> <p class="normal">firefox rocks, normal caps!</p> css .small-caps { font-variant-caps: small-caps; font-style: italic; } .normal { font-variant-caps: normal; font-style: italic; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-variant-caps' in that specification.
... full support 52edge full support 79firefox full support 34 full support 34 no support 24 — 34disabled disabled from version 24 until version 34 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.font-features.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
...ull support 52chrome android full support 52firefox android full support 34 full support 34 no support 24 — 34disabled disabled from version 24 until version 34 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.font-features.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
font-variant-ligatures - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variant-ligatures css property controls which ligatures and contextual forms are used in textual content of the elements it applies to.
...l-alt-values> ]where <common-lig-values> = [ common-ligatures | no-common-ligatures ]<discretionary-lig-values> = [ discretionary-ligatures | no-discretionary-ligatures ]<historical-lig-values> = [ historical-ligatures | no-historical-ligatures ]<contextual-alt-values> = [ contextual | no-contextual ] examples setting font ligatures and contextual forms html <link href="//fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=lora" rel="stylesheet"> <p class="normal"> normal<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="none"> none<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="common-ligatures"> common-ligatures<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="no-common-ligatures"> no-common-ligatures<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="discretionary-ligatures"> discretionary-ligatures<br> if fi ff tf ft jf ...
...</p> <p class="historical-ligatures"> historical-ligatures<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="no-historical-ligatures"> no-historical-ligatures<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="contextual"> contextual<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="no-contextual"> no-contextual<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> <p class="contextual"> contextual<br> if fi ff tf ft jf fj </p> css p { font-family: lora, serif; } .normal { font-variant-ligatures: normal; } .none { font-variant-ligatures: none; } .common-ligatures { font-variant-ligatures: common-ligatures; } .no-common-ligatures { font-variant-ligatures: no-common-ligatures; } .discretionary-ligatures { font-variant-ligatures: discretionary-ligatures; } .no-discretionary-ligatures { font-variant-ligature...
...l-ligatures { font-variant-ligatures: historical-ligatures; } .no-historical-ligatures { font-variant-ligatures: no-historical-ligatures; } .contextual { font-variant-ligatures: contextual; } .no-contextual { font-variant-ligatures: no-contextual; } .contextual { font-variant-ligatures: contextual; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-variant-ligatures' in that specification.
font-variant-position - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variant-position css property controls the use of alternate, smaller glyphs that are positioned as superscript or subscript.
...it also applies to ::first-letter and ::first-line.inheritedyescomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax normal | sub | super examples setting superscript and subscript forms html <p class="normal">normal!</p> <p class="super">super!</p> <p class="sub">sub!</p> css p { display: inline; } .normal { font-variant-position: normal; } .super { font-variant-position: super; } .sub { font-variant-position: sub; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-variant-position' in that specification.
...rome no support noedge no support nofirefox full support 34 full support 34 no support 24 — 34disabled disabled from version 24 until version 34 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.font-features.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
... no support nochrome android no support nofirefox android full support 34 full support 34 no support 24 — 34disabled disabled from version 24 until version 34 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.font-features.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
<frequency-percentage> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <frequency-percentage> css data type represents a value that can be either a <frequency> or a <percentage>.
...the pitch of a speaking voice, are not currently used in any css properties.
... specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<frequency-percentage>' in that specification.
... editor's draft css values and units module level 3the definition of '<frequency-percentage>' in that specification.
<gradient> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSgradient
the <gradient> css data type is a special type of <image> that consists of a progressive transition between two or more colors.
... a css gradient has no intrinsic dimensions; i.e., it has no natural or preferred size, nor a preferred ratio.
... <div class="conic-gradient">conic gradient</div> div { width: 200px; height: 200px; } .conic-gradient { background: conic-gradient(lightpink, white, powderblue); } specifications specification status comment css images module level 4the definition of '<gradient>' in that specification.
... working draft adds conic-gradient css images module level 3the definition of '<gradient>' in that specification.
grid-template - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-template css property is a shorthand property for defining grid columns, rows, and areas.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: grid-template-areas grid-template-columns grid-template-rows syntax /* keyword value */ grid-template: none; /* grid-template-rows / grid-template-columns values */ grid-template: 100px 1fr / 50px 1fr; grid-template: auto 1fr / auto 1fr auto; grid-template: [linename] 100px / [columnname1] 30% [columnname2] 70%; grid-template: fit-content(100px) / fit-content(40%); /* grid-template-areas grid-template-rows / grid-template-column values */ grid-template: "a a a" ...
...<track-size> ]+ <line-names>?where <track-breadth> = <length-percentage> | <flex> | min-content | max-content | auto<inflexible-breadth> = <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | autowhere <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples defining a grid template css #page { display: grid; width: 100%; height: 200px; grid-template: [header-left] "head head" 30px [header-right] [main-left] "nav main" 1fr [main-right] [footer-left] "nav foot" 30px [footer-right] / 120px 1fr; } header { background-color: lime; grid-area: head; } nav { background-color: lightblue; grid-area: nav; } main {...
... background-color: yellow; grid-area: main; } footer { background-color: red; grid-area: foot; } html <section id="page"> <header>header</header> <nav>navigation</nav> <main>main area</main> <footer>footer</footer> </section> result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-template' in that specification.
ident - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSident
the <ident> css data type denotes an arbitrary string used as an identifier.
... syntax the syntax of <custom-ident> is similar to css identifiers (such as property names), except that it is case-sensitive.
... specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<ident>' in that specification.
... editor's draft css values and units module level 3the definition of '<ident>' in that specification.
justify-content - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css justify-content property defines how the browser distributes space between and around content items along the main-axis of a flex container, and the inline axis of a grid container.
...[ <content-position> | left | right ]where <content-distribution> = space-between | space-around | space-evenly | stretch<overflow-position> = unsafe | safe<content-position> = center | start | end | flex-start | flex-end examples setting flex item distribution css #container { display: flex; justify-content: space-between; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } #container > div { width: 100px; height: 100px; background: linear-gradient(-45deg, #788cff, #b4c8ff); } html <div id="container"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> <select id="justifycontent"> <option value="start">start</option> <option value="end">end</option...
...pace-evenly">space-evenly</option> <option value="stretch">stretch</option> </select> javascript var justifycontent = document.getelementbyid("justifycontent"); justifycontent.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("container").style.justifycontent = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'justify-content' in that specification.
... css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'justify-content' in that specification.
left - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSleft
the left css property participates in specifying the horizontal position of a positioned element.
... <pre> position: absolute; bottom: 10px; right: 20px; </pre> <p>absolute position inside of a parent with relative position</p> </div> <div id="example_5"> <pre> position: absolute; right: 0; left: 0; top: 200px; </pre> <p>absolute position with both left and right declared</p> </div> </div> </div> css #wrap { width: 700px; margin: 0 auto; background: #5c5c5c; } pre { white-space: pre; white-space: pre-wrap; white-space: pre-line; word-wrap: break-word; } #example_1 { width: 200px; height: 200px; position: absolute; left: 20px; top: 20px; background-color: #d8f5ff; } #example_2 { width: 200px; height: 200px; position: relative; top: 0; right: 0; backgro...
... 400px; position: relative; top: 20px; left: 20px; background-color: #ffd7c2; } #example_4 { width:200px; height:200px; position:absolute; bottom:10px; right:20px; background-color:#ffc7e4; } #example_5 { position: absolute; right: 0; left: 0; top: 100px; background-color: #d7ffc2; } result specifications specification status comment css positioned layout module level 3the definition of 'left' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'left' in that specification.
<length-percentage> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <length-percentage> css data type represents a value that can be either a <length> or a <percentage>.
... html <p>you can use percentages and lengths in so many places.</p> css p { /* length-percentage examples */ width: 75%; height: 200px; margin: 3rem; padding: 1%; border-radius: 10px 10%; font-size: 250%; line-height: 1.5em; /* length examples */ text-shadow: 1px 1px 1px red; border: 5px solid red; letter-spacing: 3px; /* percentage example */ text-size-adjust: 20%; } result use in calc() where a <length-percentage> is specified as an allowable type, this means that the percentage resolves to a ...
...therefore, all of the following values are acceptable for width: width: 200px; width: 20%; width: calc(100% - 200px); specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<length-percentage>' in that specification.
... editor's draft css values and units module level 3the definition of '<length-percentage>' in that specification.
letter-spacing - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the letter-spacing css property sets the horizontal spacing behavior between text characters.
...line.inheritedyescomputed valuean optimum value consisting of either an absolute length or the keyword normalanimation typea length formal syntax normal | <length> examples setting letter spacing html <p class="normal">letter spacing</p> <p class="em-wide">letter spacing</p> <p class="em-wider">letter spacing</p> <p class="em-tight">letter spacing</p> <p class="px-wide">letter spacing</p> css .normal { letter-spacing: normal; } .em-wide { letter-spacing: 0.4em; } .em-wider { letter-spacing: 1em; } .em-tight { letter-spacing: -0.05em; } .px-wide { letter-spacing: 6px; } result specifications specification status comment css text module level 3the definition of 'letter-spacing' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'letter-spacing' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'letter-spacing' in that specification.
list-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the list-style css shorthand property allows you set all the list style properties at once.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: list-style-image list-style-position list-style-type syntax /* type */ list-style: square; /* image */ list-style: url('../img/shape.png'); /* position */ list-style: inside; /* type | position */ list-style: georgian inside; /* type | image | position */ list-style: lower-roman url('../img/shape.png') outside; /* keyword value */ list-style: none; /* global values */ li...
...s specifiedlist-style-type: as specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'list-style-type'> | <'list-style-position'> | <'list-style-image'> examples setting list style type and position html list 1 <ul class="one"> <li>list item1</li> <li>list item2</li> <li>list item3</li> </ul> list 2 <ul class="two"> <li>list item a</li> <li>list item b</li> <li>list item c</li> </ul> css .one { list-style: circle; } .two { list-style: square inside; } result specifications specification status comment css lists module level 3the definition of 'list-style' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'list-style' in that specification.
margin-top - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the margin-top css property sets the margin area on the top of an element.
...taining blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> | auto examples setting positive and negative top margins .content { margin-top: 5%; } .sidebox { margin-top: 10px; } .logo { margin-top: -5px; } #footer { margin-top: 1em; } specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'margin-top' in that specification.
... working draft no significant change css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'margin-top' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'margin-top' in that specification.
mask-border - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the mask-border css shorthand property lets you create a mask along the edge of an element's border.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: mask-border-mode mask-border-outset mask-border-repeat mask-border-slice mask-border-source mask-border-width syntax /* source | slice */ mask-border: url('border-mask.png') 25; /* source | slice | repeat */ mask-border: url('border-mask.png') 25 space; /* source | slice | width */ mask-border: url('border-mask.png') 25 / 35px; /* source | slice | width | outset | repeat | mode */ mask-border: url('border-mask.png') 25 / 35px / 12px space alpha; values <'mask-border-source'> the source image.
...pretty neat, isn't it?</div> css to match the size of a single diamond, we will use a value of 90 divided by 3, or 30, for slicing the image into corner and edge regions.
...epeat */ /* updated standard shorthand property, not supported anywhere yet */ mask-border: url("https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/2d/fd08a3134c.png") /* source */ 30 fill / /* slice */ 20px / /* width */ 1px /* outset */ round; /* repeat */ } result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-border' in that specification.
mask-origin - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the mask-origin css property sets the origin of a mask.
...in other words, this property specifies the origin position of an image specified by the mask-image css property.
...elements; in svg, it applies to container elements excluding the defs element and all graphics elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <geometry-box>#where <geometry-box> = <shape-box> | fill-box | stroke-box | view-boxwhere <shape-box> = <box> | margin-boxwhere <box> = border-box | padding-box | content-box examples setting mask origin to border-box css #masked { width: 100px; height: 100px; margin: 10px; border: 10px solid blue; background-color: #8cffa0; padding: 10px; mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12676/star.svg); mask-origin: border-box; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } html <div id="masked"> </div> <select id="origin"> <option value="content-box">content-box</option> <option value="padd...
...">fill-box</option> <option value="stroke-box">stroke-box</option> <option value="view-box">view-box</option> </select> javascript var origin = document.getelementbyid("origin"); origin.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("masked").style.maskorigin = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-origin' in that specification.
mask-repeat - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the mask-repeat css property sets how mask images are repeated.
...the position of the non-repeated mask image is defined by the mask-position css property.
...tion initial valueno-repeatapplies toall elements; in svg, it applies to container elements excluding the defs element and all graphics elementsinheritednocomputed valueconsists of two keywords, one per dimensionanimation typediscrete formal syntax <repeat-style>#where <repeat-style> = repeat-x | repeat-y | [ repeat | space | round | no-repeat ]{1,2} examples setting repeat for a single mask css #masked { width: 250px; height: 250px; background: blue linear-gradient(red, blue); mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12676/star.svg); mask-repeat: repeat; /* can be changed in the live sample */ margin-bottom: 10px; } html content <div id="masked"> </div> <select id="repetition"> <option value="repeat-x">repeat-x</option> <option value="repeat-y">repeat-y</o...
... specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-repeat' in that specification.
mask-size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmask-size
the mask-size css property specifies the sizes of the mask images.
...ize: auto 6px; mask-size: auto auto; /* multiple values */ /* do not confuse this with mask-size: auto auto */ mask-size: auto, auto; mask-size: 50%, 25%, 25%; mask-size: 6px, auto, contain; /* global values */ mask-size: inherit; mask-size: initial; mask-size: unset; note: if the value of this property is not set in a mask shorthand property that is applied to the element after the mask-size css property, the value of this property is then reset to its initial value by the shorthand property.
... element and all graphics elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specified, but with relative lengths converted into absolute lengthsanimation typerepeatable list of simple list of length, percentage, or calc formal syntax <bg-size>#where <bg-size> = [ <length-percentage> | auto ]{1,2} | cover | containwhere <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting mask size as a percentage css #masked { width: 200px; height: 200px; background: blue linear-gradient(red, blue); -webkit-mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12668/mdn.svg); mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12668/mdn.svg); -webkit-mask-size: 50%; mask-size: 50%; /* can be changed in the live sample */ margin-bottom: 10px; } html <div id="masked"> </div> <select id="masksiz...
...100px">200px 100px</option> <option value="cover">cover</option> <option value="contain">contain</option> </select> javascript var masksize = document.getelementbyid("masksize"); masksize.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("masked").style.masksize = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-size' in that specification.
max-block-size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the max-block-size css property specifies the maximum size of an element in the direction opposite that of the writing direction as specified by writing-mode.
...mode affect the mapping of max-block-size to max-width or max-height as follows: values of writing-mode max-block-size is equivalent to horizontal-tb, lr , lr-tb , rl , rb , rb-rl max-height vertical-rl, vertical-lr, sideways-rl , sideways-lr , tb , tb-rl max-width the writing-mode values sideways-lr and sideways-rl were removed from the css writing modes level 3 specification late in its design process.
...</div> css the css defines three classes.
... .standard-box { padding: 4px; background-color: #abcdef; color: #000; font: 16px "open sans", "helvetica", "arial", sans-serif; max-block-size: 160px; min-block-size: 100px; } .horizontal { writing-mode: horizontal-tb; } .vertical { writing-mode: vertical-rl; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'max-block-size' in that specification.
max() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmax
the max() css function lets you set the largest (most positive) value from a list of comma-separated expressions as the value of a css property value.
... formal syntax max( <calc-sum># )where <calc-sum> = <calc-product> [ [ '+' | '-' ] <calc-product> ]*where <calc-product> = <calc-value> [ '*' <calc-value> | '/' <number> ]*where <calc-value> = <number> | <dimension> | <percentage> | ( <calc-sum> ) examples setting a minimum size for a font another use case for css functions is allow a font size to grow while ensuring it is at least a mimum size, enabling responsive font sizes while ensuring legibility.
... let's look at some css: h1 { font-size: 2rem; } h1.responsive { font-size: max(4vw, 2em, 2rem); } the font-size will at minimum be 2rems, or twice the default size of font for the page.
... mdn understanding wcag, guideline 1.4 explanations understanding success criterion 1.4.4 | w3c understanding wcag 2.0 specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of 'max()' in that specification.
min-height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the min-height css property sets the minimum height of an element.
...as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax auto | <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | fit-content(<length-percentage>)where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting min-height table { min-height: 75%; } form { min-height: 0; } specifications specification status comment css box sizing module level 4the definition of 'min-height' in that specification.
... editor's draft css box sizing module level 3the definition of 'min-height' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'min-height' in that specification.
min() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmin
the min() css function lets you set the smallest (most negative) value from a list of comma-separated expressions as the value of a css property value.
... mdn understanding wcag, guideline 1.4 explanations understanding success criterion 1.4.4 | w3c understanding wcag 2.0 examples setting a maximum size for a label and input another use case for css functions is to set a maximum size on responsive form controls: enabling the width of labels and inputs to shrink as the width of the form shrinks.
... let's look at some css: input, label { padding: 2px; box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; width: min(40%, 400px); background-color: pink; } form { margin: 4px; border: 1px solid black; padding: 4px; } here, the form itself, along with the margin, border, and padding, will be 100% of its parent's width.
... <form> <label>type something:</label> <input type="text"> </form> specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of 'min()' in that specification.
minmax() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSminmax
the minmax() css function defines a size range greater than or equal to min and less than or equal to max.
... it is used with css grids.
... formal syntax minmax( [ <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | auto ] , [ <length> | <percentage> | <flex> | min-content | max-content | auto ] ) css properties minmax() function can be used within: grid-template-columns grid-template-rows grid-auto-columns grid-auto-rows examples css #container { display: grid; grid-template-columns: minmax(min-content, 300px) minmax(200px, 1fr) 150px; grid-gap: 5px; box-sizing: border-box; height: 200px; width: 100%; background-color: #8cffa0; padding: 10px; } #container > div { ...
... </div> </div> result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'minmax()' in that specification.
object-position - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the object-position css property specifies the alignment of the selected replaced element's contents within the element's box.
... <img id="object-position-1" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/db/4f9fbd7dfb.svg" alt="mdn logo"/> <img id="object-position-2" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/db/4f9fbd7dfb.svg" alt="mdn logo"/> css the css includes default styling for the <img> element itself, as well as separate styles for each of the two images.
... result specifications specification status comment css images module level 3the definition of 'object-position' in that specification.
... see also other image-related css properties: object-fit, image-orientation, image-rendering, image-resolution.
opacity - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSopacity
the opacity css property sets the opacity of an element.
...ial value1.0applies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valuethe specified value, clipped in the range [0,1]animation typea number formal syntax <alpha-value>where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage> examples setting background opacity html <div class="light">you can barely see this.</div> <div class="medium">this is easier to see.</div> <div class="heavy">this is very easy to see.</div> css div { background-color: yellow; } .light { opacity: 0.2; /* barely see the text over the background */ } .medium { opacity: 0.5; /* see the text more clearly over the background */ } .heavy { opacity: 0.9; /* see the text very clearly over the background */ } result setting opacity on hover html <img src="//developer.mozilla.org/static/img/opengraph-logo.png" alt="mdn logo" width=...
..."128" height="146" class="opacity"> css img.opacity { opacity: 1; filter: alpha(opacity=100); /* ie8 and lower */ zoom: 1; /* triggers "haslayout" in ie 7 and lower */ } img.opacity:hover { opacity: 0.5; filter: alpha(opacity=50); zoom: 1; } result specifications specification status comment css color module level 4the definition of 'opacity' in that specification.
... css color module level 3the definition of 'opacity' in that specification.
order - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSorder
the order css property sets the order to lay out an item in a flex or grid container.
...if the visual (css) order is important, then screen reader users will not have access to the correct reading order.
...ters | adrian roselli mdn understanding wcag, guideline 1.3 explanations understanding success criterion 1.3.2 | w3c understanding wcag 2.0 formal definition initial value0applies toflex items and absolutely-positioned flex container childreninheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typean integer formal syntax <integer> examples ordering items in a flex container this example uses css to create a classic two-sidebar layout surrounding a content block.
... html <header>...</header> <main> <article>article</article> <nav>nav</nav> <aside>aside</aside> </main> <footer>...</footer> css main { display: flex; text-align:center; } main > article { flex:1; order: 2; } main > nav { width: 200px; order: 1; } main > aside { width: 200px; order: 3; } result specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'order' in that specification.
outline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSoutline
the outline css shorthand property set all the outline properties in a single declaration.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: outline-color outline-style outline-width syntax /* style */ outline: solid; /* color | style */ outline: #f66 dashed; /* style | width */ outline: inset thick; /* color | style | width */ outline: green solid 3px; /* global values */ outline: inherit; outline: initial; outline: unset; the outline property may be specified using one, two, or three of the values listed below.
...th; if the keyword none is specified, the computed value is 0outline-style: as specifiedanimation typeas each of the properties of the shorthand:outline-color: a coloroutline-width: a lengthoutline-style: discrete formal syntax [ <'outline-color'> | <'outline-style'> | <'outline-width'> ] examples using outline to set a focus style html <a href="#">this link has a special focus style.</a> css a { border: 1px solid; border-radius: 3px; display: inline-block; margin: 10px; padding: 5px; } a:focus { outline: 4px dotted #e73; outline-offset: 4px; background: #ffa; } result specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 3the definition of 'outline' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'outline' in that specification.
padding-bottom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the padding-bottom css property sets the height of the padding area on the bottom of an element.
...ne.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the width of the containing blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> examples setting padding bottom with pixels and percentages .content { padding-bottom: 5%; } .sidebox { padding-bottom: 10px; } specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'padding-bottom' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'padding-bottom' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'padding-bottom' in that specification.
padding-left - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the padding-left css property sets the width of the padding area to the left of an element.
...st-line.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the width of the containing blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> examples setting left padding using pixels and percentages .content { padding-left: 5%; } .sidebox { padding-left: 10px; } specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'padding-left' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'padding-left' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'padding-left' in that specification.
padding-right - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the padding-right css property sets the width of the padding area on the right of an element.
...line.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the width of the containing blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> examples setting right padding using pixels and percentages .content { padding-right: 5%; } .sidebox { padding-right: 10px; } specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'padding-right' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'padding-right' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'padding-right' in that specification.
padding-top - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the padding-top css property sets the height of the padding area on the top of an element.
...first-line.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the width of the containing blockcomputed valuethe percentage as specified or the absolute lengthanimation typea length formal syntax <length> | <percentage> examples setting top padding using pixels and percentages .content { padding-top: 5%; } .sidebox { padding-top: 10px; } specifications specification status comment css basic box modelthe definition of 'padding-top' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'padding-top' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'padding-top' in that specification.
page-break-after - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the page-break-after css property adjusts page breaks after the current element.
...may also apply it to other elements like table-row elements.inheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax auto | always | avoid | left | right | recto | verso examples setting a page break after footnotes /* move to a new page after footnotes */ div.footnotes { page-break-after: always; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'recto and verso' in that specification.
... css paged media module level 3the definition of 'page-break-after' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'page-break-after' in that specification.
page-break-before - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the page-break-before css property adjusts page breaks before the current element.
...r agents may also apply it to other elements like table-row elements.inheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax auto | always | avoid | left | right | recto | verso examples avoid a page break before the dic /* avoid page break before the div */ div.note { page-break-before: avoid; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'recto and verso' in that specification.
... css paged media module level 3the definition of 'page-break-before' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'page-break-before' in that specification.
perspective - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the perspective css property determines the distance between the z=0 plane and the user in order to give a 3d-positioned element some perspective.
...their z-axis coordinates are greater than the value of the perspective css property — are not drawn.
... <div class="container"> <div class="cube pers650"> <div class="face front">1</div> <div class="face back">2</div> <div class="face right">3</div> <div class="face left">4</div> <div class="face top">5</div> <div class="face bottom">6</div> </div> </div> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> css the css establishes classes that can be used to set the perspective to different distances.
...: rgba(196, 196, 0, 0.7); transform: rotatex(90deg) translatez(50px); } .bottom { background: rgba(196, 0, 196, 0.7); transform: rotatex(-90deg) translatez(50px); } /* make the table a little nicer */ th, p, td { background-color: #eeeeee; padding: 10px; font-family: sans-serif; text-align: left; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'perspective' in that specification.
place-content - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the place-content css shorthand property allows you to align content along both the block and inline directions at once (i.e.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: align-content justify-content syntax /* positional alignment */ /* align-content does not take left and right values */ place-content: center start; place-content: start center; place-content: end left; place-content: flex-start center; place-content: flex-end center; /* baseline alignment */ /* justify-content does not take baseline values */ place-content: baseline center; p...
...change", update); var writingm = document.getelementbyid("writingmode"); writingm.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("container").style.writingmode = evt.target.value; }); var direction = document.getelementbyid("direction"); direction.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("container").style.direction = evt.target.value; }); css #container { display: flex; height:240px; width: 240px; flex-wrap: wrap; background-color: #8c8c8c; writing-mode: horizontal-tb; /* can be changed in the live sample */ direction: ltr; /* can be changed in the live sample */ place-content: flex-end center; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } div > div { border: 2px solid #8c8c8c; width: 50px; background-color: #a0c8f...
...f; } .small { font-size: 12px; height: 40px; } .large { font-size: 14px; height: 50px; } result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'place content' in that specification.
place-self - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the place-self css shorthand property allows you to align an individual item in both the block and inline directions at once (i.e.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: align-self justify-self syntax /* keyword values */ place-self: auto center; place-self: normal start; /* positional alignment */ place-self: center normal; place-self: start auto; place-self: end normal; place-self: self-start auto; place-self: self-end normal; place-self: flex-start auto; place-self: flex-end normal; place-self: left auto; place-self: right normal; /* basel...
... html <article class="container"> <span>first</span> <span>second</span> <span>third</span> <span>fourth</span> </article> css html { font-family: helvetica, arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 1px; } article { background-color: red; display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; grid-auto-rows: 80px; grid-gap: 10px; width: 300px; } span:nth-child(2) { place-self: start center; } span:nth-child(3) { place-self: center start; } span:nth-child(4) { place-self: end; } article span { background-c...
...olor: black; color: white; margin: 1px; text-align: center; } article, span { padding: 10px; border-radius: 7px; } article { margin: 20px; } result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'place-self' in that specification.
quotes - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSquotes
the quotes css property sets how the browser should render quotation marks that are added using the open-quotes or close-quotes values of the css content property.
...that's the question!</q> css q { quotes: '"' '"' "'" "'"; } q::before { content: open-quote; } q::after { content: close-quote; } result auto quotes for most browsers, the default value of quotes is auto (firefox 70+), or the browser otherwise had this default behavior (chromiums, safari, edge), so this example works without it being explicitly being set.
... html <div lang="fr"> <q>ceci est une citation française.</q> <div> <hr> <div lang="ru"> <q>Это русская цитата</q> <div> <hr> <div lang="de"> <q>dies ist ein deutsches zitat</q> <div> <hr> <div lang="en"> <q>this is an english quote.</q> <div> css /*q { quotes: auto; }*/ result specifications specification status comment css generated content module level 3the definition of 'quotes' in that specification.
... working draft css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'quotes' in that specification.
repeating-linear-gradient() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the repeating-linear-gradient() css function creates an image consisting of repeating linear gradients.
... note: rendering of color stops in css gradients follows the same rules as color stops in svg gradients.
... note: please see using css gradients for more examples.
... specifications specification status comment css images module level 3the definition of 'repeating-linear-gradient()' in that specification.
row-gap (grid-row-gap) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSrow-gap
the row-gap css property sets the size of the gap (gutter) between an element's grid rows.
... css grid layout initially defined the grid-row-gap property.
...ted valueas specified, with <length>s made absolute, and normal computing to zero except on multi-column elementsanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax normal | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples flex layout html <div id="flexbox"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> css #flexbox { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; width: 300px; row-gap: 20px; } #flexbox > div { border: 1px solid green; background-color: lime; flex: 1 1 auto; width: 100px; height: 50px; } result grid layout html <div id="grid"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> css #grid { grid-row-gap: 20px; } #grid { display: grid; height: 200px; grid-templa...
...te-columns: 200px; grid-template-rows: repeat(3, 1fr); row-gap: 20px; } #grid > div { border: 1px solid green; background-color: lime; } result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'row-gap' in that specification.
shape-image-threshold - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the shape-image-threshold css property sets the alpha channel threshold used to extract the shape using an image as the value for shape-outside.
...the gradient is established as a css shape using shape-outside, so that pixels within the gradient which are at least 20% opaque (that is, those pixels with an alpha component greater than 0.2) are considered part of the shape.
...</p> css #gradient-shape { width: 150px; height: 150px; float: left; background-image: linear-gradient(30deg, black, transparent 80%, transparent); shape-outside: linear-gradient(30deg, black, transparent 80%, transparent); shape-image-threshold: 0.2; } the shape is established here using background-image with a linear gradient rather than an image file.
... result specifications specification status comment css shapes module level 1the definition of 'shape-image-threshold' in that specification.
Specified value - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the specified value of a css property is the value it receives from the document's style sheet.
... examples html <p>my specified color is given explicitly in the css.</p> <div>the specified values of all my properties default to their initial values, because none of them are given in the css.</div> <div class="fun"> <p>the specified value of my font family is not given explicitly in the css, so it is inherited from my parent.
... however, the border is not an inheriting property.</p> </div> css .fun { border: 1px dotted pink; font-family: fantasy; } p { color: green; } result specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 2)the definition of 'cascaded value' in that specification.
... working draft css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'cascaded value' in that specification.
text-combine-upright - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-combine-upright css property sets the combination of characters into the space of a single character.
... html <p lang="ja" class="exampletext">平成20年4月16日に</p> css .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; text-combine-upright: digits 2; font: 36px serif; } results screenshotlive sample all the all value requires markup around every piece of horizontal text, but it is currently supported by more browsers than the digits value.
... html <p lang="zh-hant">民國<span class="num">105</span >年<span class="num">4</span >月<span class="num">29</span>日</p> css html { writing-mode: vertical-rl; font: 24px serif } .num { text-combine-upright: all } results screenshotlive sample specifications specification status comment css writing modes level 4the definition of 'text-combine-upright' in that specification.
... candidate recommendation add digits value css writing modes module level 3the definition of 'text-combine-upright' in that specification.
text-rendering - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-rendering css property provides information to the rendering engine about what to optimize for when rendering text.
... /* keyword values */ text-rendering: auto; text-rendering: optimizespeed; text-rendering: optimizelegibility; text-rendering: geometricprecision; /* global values */ text-rendering: inherit; text-rendering: initial; text-rendering: unset; note: the text-rendering property is an svg property that is not defined in any css standard.
... html <p class="small">lyowat - ff fi fl ffl</p> <p class="big">lyowat - ff fi fl ffl</p> css .small { font: 19.9px "constantia", "times new roman", "georgia", "palatino", serif; } .big { font: 20px "constantia", "times new roman", "georgia", "palatino", serif; } result optimizespeed vs optimizelegibility this example shows the difference between the appearance of optimizespeed and optimizelegibility (in your browser; other browsers may vary).
... html <p class="speed">lyowat - ff fi fl ffl</p> <p class="legibility">lyowat - ff fi fl ffl</p> css p { font: 1.5em "constantia", "times new roman", "georgia", "palatino", serif } .speed { text-rendering: optimizespeed; } .legibility { text-rendering: optimizelegibility; } result specifications specification status comment scalable vector graphics (svg) 2the definition of 'text-rendering' in that specification.
<time> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSStime
the <time> css data type represents a time value expressed in seconds or milliseconds.
... specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<time>' in that specification.
... editor's draft css values and units module level 3the definition of '<time>' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of '<time>' in that specification.
matrix3d() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the matrix3d() css function defines a 3d transformation as a 4x4 homogeneous matrix.
... html <section id="example-element" tabindex="0"> <div class="face front">1</div> <div class="face back">2</div> <div class="face right">3</div> <div class="face left">4</div> <div class="face top">5</div> <div class="face bottom">6</div> </section> css #example-element { width: 100px; height: 100px; transform-style: preserve-3d; transition: transform 1.5s; transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg); margin: 50px auto; } #example-element:hover, #example-element:focus { transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg) matrix3d(1,0,0,0,0,1,6,0,0,0,1,0,50,100,0,1.1); } .face { display: flex; align-items: center; justify-content: center; width:...
...</div> css html { width: 100%; } body { height: 100vh; /* centering content */ display: flex; flex-flow: row wrap; justify-content: center; align-content: center; } .foo { width: 50%; padding: 1em; color: white; background: #ff8c66; border: 2px dashed black; text-align: center; font-family: system-ui, sans-serif; font-size: 14px; /* setting up animation for better demons...
...ransform: matrix3d( 1,0,0,0, 0,1,0,0, 0,0,1,0, -50,-100,0,1.1 ); } 50% { transform: matrix3d( 1,0,0,0, 0,1,0,0, 0,0,1,0, 0,0,0,0.9 ); } to { transform: matrix3d( 1,0,0,0, 0,1,0,0, 0,0,1,0, 50,100,0,1.1 ) } } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'matrix3d()' in that specification.
rotate3d() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the rotate3d() css function defines a transformation that rotates an element around a fixed axis in 3d space, without deforming it.
...a non-normalizable vector, such as the null vector, [0, 0, 0], will cause the rotation to be ignored, but without invaliding the whole css property.
...ℝℙ2 cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 1+(1-cos(a))(x2-1)z·sin(a)+xy(1-cos(a))-y·sin(a)+xz·(1-cos(a))-z·sin(a)+xy·(1-cos(a))1+(1-cos(a))(y2-1)x·sin(a)+yz·(1-cos(a))ysin(a) + xz(1-cos(a))-xsin(a)+yz(1-cos(a))1+(1-cos(a))(z2-1)t0001 homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3 examples rotating on the y-axis html <div>normal</div> <div class="rotated">rotated</div> css body { perspective: 800px; } div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .rotated { transform: rotate3d(0, 1, 0, 60deg); background-color: pink; } result rotating on a custom axis html <div>normal</div> <div class="rotated">rotated</div> css body { perspective: 800px; } div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .rotated { t...
...ransform: rotate3d(1, 2, -1, 192deg); background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'rotate3d()' in that specification.
translateZ() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the translatez() css function repositions an element along the z-axis in 3d space, i.e., closer to or farther away from the viewer.
... html <div>static</div> <div class="moved">moved</div> css div { position: relative; width: 60px; height: 60px; left: 100px; background-color: skyblue; } .moved { transform: perspective(500px) translatez(200px); background-color: pink; } what really matters here is the class "moved"; let's take a look at what it does.
... result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'transform' in that specification.
... editor's draft adds 3d transform functions to the css transforms standard.
transition-timing-function - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the transition-timing-function css property sets how intermediate values are calculated for css properties being affected by a transition effect.
...in both cases, the css declaration stays valid.
... formal definition initial valueeaseapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <timing-function>#where <timing-function> = linear | <cubic-bezier-timing-function> | <step-timing-function>where <cubic-bezier-timing-function> = ease | ease-in | ease-out | ease-in-out | cubic-bezier(<number <a href="/docs/css/value_definition_syntax#brackets" title="brackets: enclose several entities, combinators, and multipliers to transform them as a single component">[0,1]>, <number>, <number <a href="/docs/css/value_definition_syntax#brackets" title="brackets: enclose several entities, combinators, and multipliers to transform them as a single component">[0,1]>, <number>)<step-timing-function> = step-start | step-...
...start); } .jump-end { transition-timing-function: steps(5, jump-end); } .jump-none { transition-timing-function: steps(5, jump-none); } .jump-both { transition-timing-function: steps(5, jump-both); } .step-start { transition-timing-function: step-start; } .step-end { transition-timing-function: step-end; } specifications specification status comment css transitionsthe definition of 'transition-timing-function' in that specification.
unset - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSunset
the unset css keyword resets a property to its inherited value if the property naturally inherits from its parent, and to its initial value if not.
... unset can be applied to any css property, including the css shorthand all.
... examples color html <p>this text is red.</p> <div class="foo"> <p>this text is also red.</p> </div> <div class="bar"> <p>this text is green (default inherited value).</p> </div> css .foo { color: blue; } .bar { color: green; } p { color: red; } .bar p { color: unset; } result border html <p>this text has a red border.</p> <div> <p>this text has a red border.</p> </div> <div class="bar"> <p>this text has a black border (initial default, not inherited).</p> </div> css div { border: 1px solid green; } p { border: 1px solid red; } .bar p { border-color: unset; } result specifications specification status comment css cascading and inheritance level 4the definition of 'unset' in that specification.
... css cascading and inheritance level 3the definition of 'unset' in that specification.
visibility - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the visibility css property shows or hides an element without changing the layout of a document.
...notice the second paragraph is still occupying space.</p> css .visible { visibility: visible; } .not-visible { visibility: hidden; } table example html <table> <tr> <td>1.1</td> <td class="collapse">1.2</td> <td>1.3</td> </tr> <tr class="collapse"> <td>2.1</td> <td>2.2</td> <td>2.3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>3.1</td> <td>3.2</td> <td>3.3</td> </tr> </table> css .collapse { visibility: collapse; } tab...
...le { border: 1px solid red; } td { border: 1px solid gray; } specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'visibility' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'visibility' in that specification.
widows - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSwidows
the widows css property sets the minimum number of lines in a block container that must be shown at the top of a page, region, or column.
...it has a little bit more text than the first one.</p> </div> css div { background-color: #8cffa0; columns: 3; widows: 2; } p { background-color: #8ca0ff; } p:first-child { margin-top: 0; } result specifications specification status comment css fragmentation module level 3the definition of 'widows' in that specification.
... css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'widows' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'widows' in that specification.
zoom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSzoom
the non-standard zoom css property can be used to control the magnification level of an element.
...however, unlike css transforms, zoom affects the layout size of the element.
... formal definition initial valuenormalapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typean integer formal syntax normal | reset | <number> | <percentage> examples first example html <p class="small">small</p> <p class="normal">normal</p> <p class="big">big</p> css p.small { zoom: 75%; } p.normal { zoom: normal; } p.big { zoom: 2.5; } p { display: inline-block; } p:hover { zoom: reset; } result second example html <div id="a" class="circle"></div> <div id="b" class="circle"></div> <div id="c" class="circle"></div> css div.circle { width: 25px; height: 25px; border-radius: 100%; text-align: center; vertical-align: middle; disp...
...apple has a description in the safari css reference.
Selector (CSS) - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms
a css selector is the part of a css rule that describes what elements in a document the rule will match.
... consider this css: p { color: green; } div.warning { width: 100%; border: 2px solid yellow; color: white; background-color: darkred; padding: 0.8em 0.8em 0.6em; } #customized { font: 16px lucida grande, arial, helvetica, sans-serif; } the selectors here are "p" (which applies the color green to the text inside any <p> element), "div.warning" (which makes any <div> element with the class "warning" look like a warning box), and "#customized", which sets the base font of the element with the id "customized" to 16-pixel tall lucida grande or one of a few fallback fonts.
... we can then apply this css to some html, such as: <p>this is happy text.</p> <div class="warning"> be careful!
Media (CSS) - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms
in the context of css (cascading style sheets), the term media refers to the destination to which the document is to be drawn by the rendering engine.
... css offers several features that allow you to tweak your document's styles—or even offer different styles—according to the media type (such as screen or print, to name two) or media capabilities (such as width, resolution, or other values) of the viewer's device.
... learn more general knowledge using media queries technical reference media queries define a set of characteristics or parameters required to apply the css styles that are specified within the curly braces of the media query; for example: only applying certain css styles for devices below 768 pixels.
Edit Shape Paths in CSS - Firefox Developer Tools
the shape path editor is a tool that helps you see and edit shapes created using clip-path and also the css shape-outside property and <basic-shape> values.
... activate / deactivate the shape path editor the shape path editor is accessed via the css rules panel, which can be opened as described in the guide to opening the inspector.
...to understand the margin box, and other boxes used by css shapes see our guide to shapes from box values.
CSS.paintWorklet (Static property) - Web APIs
WebAPICSSpaintWorklet
paintworklet is a static, read-only property of the css interface that provides access to the paintworklet, which programmatically generates an image where a css property expects a file.
... syntax var worklet = css.paintworklet; value the paintworklet object.
... <script> if ('paintworklet' in css) { css.paintworklet.addmodule('checkerboard.js'); } </script> specifications specification status comment css painting api level 1the definition of 'paintworklet' in that specification.
CSSMathProduct.values - Web APIs
the cssmathproduct.values read-only property of the cssmathproduct interface returns a cssnumericarray object which contains one or more cssnumericvalue objects.
... syntax var cssnumericarray = cssmathproduct.values; value a cssnumericarray.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'values' in that specification.
CSSMathSum.values - Web APIs
WebAPICSSMathSumvalues
the cssmathsum.values read-only property of the cssmathsum interface returns a cssnumericarray object which contains one or more cssnumericvalue objects.
... syntax var cssnumericarray = cssmathsum.values; value a cssnumericarray.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'values' in that specification.
CSSNamespaceRule.namespaceURI - Web APIs
the cssnamespacerule.namespaceuri read-only property returns a domstring containing the text of the uri of the given namespace.
... syntax var namespaceuri = cssnamespacerule.namespaceuri returns a domstring containing a uri.
... specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'namespaceuri' in that specification.
CSSNamespaceRule.prefix - Web APIs
the cssnamespacerule.prefix read-only property returns a domstring with the name of the prefix associated to this namespace.
... syntax var prefix = cssnamespacerule.prefix returns a domstring containing the prefix associated to this namespace.
... specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'namespaceuri' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.equals() - Web APIs
the equals() method of the cssnumericvalue interface returns a boolean indicating whether the passed value are strictly equal.
... syntax var boolean = cssnumericvalue.equals(number); parameters number either a number or a cssnumericvalue.
... let cssmathsum = new cssmathsum(css.px(1), css.px(2)); let matchingcssmathsum = new cssmathsum(css.px(1), css.px(2)); // prints true console.log(cssmathsum.equals(matchingcssmathsum)); let othercssmathsum = cssmathsum(css.px(2), css.px(1)); // prints false console.log(cssmathsum.equals(othercssmathsum)); // also prints false console.log(css.cm("1").equal(css.in("0.393701"))); specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'equals' in that specification.
CSSNumericValue.sum() - Web APIs
the sub() method of the cssnumericvalue interface subtracts a supplied number from the cssnumericvalue.
... syntax var cssmathsum = cssnumericvalue.sub(number); parameters number either a number or a cssmathsum return value a cssmathsum exceptions typeerror indicates that an invalid type was passed to the method.
... examples let mathsum = css.px("23").sum(css.percent("4")).sum(css.cm("3")).sum(css.in("9")); // prints "calc(23px - 4% - 3cm - 9in)" console.log(mathsum.tostring()); and/or include a list of links to useful code samples that live elsewhere: specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'sub' in that specification.
CSSPositionValue.x - Web APIs
the x property of the csspositionvalue interface returns returns the item's position along the web page's horizontal axis.
... syntax var x = csspositionvalue.x value a cssnumericvalue.
... let somediv = document.getelementbyid('container'); let position = new csspositionvalue(css.px(5), css.px(10)); somediv.attributestylemap.set('object-position', position); console.log(position.x.value, position.y.value); ...
CSSPositionValue.y - Web APIs
the y property of the csspositionvalue interface returns the item's position along the vertical axis.
... syntax var y = csspositionvalue.y value a cssnumericvalue.
... let replaceel = document.getelementbyid('container'); let position = new csspositionvalue(css.px(5), css.px(10)); somediv.attributestylemap.set('object-position', position); console.log(position.x.value, position.y.value); ...
CSSRule.parentStyleSheet - Web APIs
the parentstylesheet property of the cssrule interface returns the stylesheet object in which the current rule is defined.
... syntax var stylesheet = cssrule.parentstylesheet parameters stylesheet is a stylesheet object.
...} specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssrule: parentstylesheet' in that specification.
CSSStyleDeclaration.getPropertyPriority() - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration.getpropertypriority() method interface returns a domstring that provides all explicitly set priorities on the css property.
... example the following javascript code checks whether margin is marked as important in a css selector rule: var declaration = document.stylesheets[0].cssrules[0].style; var isimportant = declaration.getpropertypriority('margin') === 'important'; specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstyledeclaration.getpropertypriority()' in that specification.
... working draft document object model (dom) level 2 style specificationthe definition of 'cssstyledeclaration' in that specification.
CSSStyleDeclaration.getPropertyValue() - Web APIs
the cssstyledeclaration.getpropertyvalue() method interface returns a domstring containing the value of a specified css property.
... example the following javascript code queries the value of the margin property in a css selector rule: var declaration = document.stylesheets[0].cssrules[0].style; var value = declaration.getpropertyvalue('margin'); // "1px 2px" specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstyledeclaration.getpropertyvalue()' in that specification.
... working draft document object model (dom) level 2 style specificationthe definition of 'cssstyledeclaration' in that specification.
CSSStyleDeclaration.length - Web APIs
the read-only property returns an integer that represents the number of style declarations in this css declaration block.
... example the following gets the number of explicitly set styles on the following html element: <div id="div1" style="margin: 0 10px; background-color: #ca1; font-family: monospace"></div> javascript code: var mydiv = document.getelementbyid('div1'); var divstyle = mydiv.style; var len = divstyle.length; // 6 specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstyledeclaration.length' in that specification.
... working draft document object model (dom) level 2 style specificationthe definition of 'cssstyledeclaration' in that specification.
CSSStyleRule.selectorText - Web APIs
the cssrule.selectortext property gets the textual representation of the selector for the rule set.
... syntax string = cssrule.selectortext example // for cssrule: body { background-color: darkblue; } var stylesheet = document.stylesheets[0]; alert(stylesheet.cssrules[0].selectortext); // body notes the implementation may have stripped out insignificant whitespace while parsing the selector.
... specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstylerule.selectortext' in that specification.
CSSStyleRule.styleMap - Web APIs
the stylemap read-only property of the cssstylerule interface returns a stylepropertymap object which provides access to the rule's property-value pairs.
... syntax var stylepropertymap = cssstylerule.stylemap; value a stylepropertymap object.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'stylemap' in that specification.
CSSStyleSheet.deleteRule() - Web APIs
the cssstylesheet method deleterule() removes a rule from the stylesheet object.
... syntax cssstylesheet.deleterule(index) parameters index the index into the stylesheet's cssrulelist indicating the rule to be removed.
... mystyles.deleterule(0); specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstylesheet.deleterule()' in that specification.
CSSStyleSheet.ownerRule - Web APIs
the read-only cssstylesheet property ownerrule returns the cssimportrule corresponding to the @import at-rule which imported the stylesheet into the document.
... syntax var ownerrule = cssstylesheet.ownerrule; value a cssimportrule corresponding to the @import rule which imported the stylesheet into the document.
... let rulelist = document.stylesheets[0].cssrules; for (let rule of rulelist) { if (!rule.ownerrule) { /* rule is not imported */ } } this snipped obtains a reference to the stylesheet associated with the @import and processes it in some manner: let rulelist = document.stylesheets[0].cssrules; for (let rule of rulelist) { if (rule.ownerrule) { checkstylesheet(rule.ownerrule.stylesheet); } } specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstylesheet.ownerrule' in that specification.
CSSStyleSheet.removeRule() - Web APIs
the obsolete cssstylesheet method removerule() removes a rule from the stylesheet object.
... syntax cssstylesheet.removerule(index) parameters index the index into the stylesheet's cssrulelist indicating the rule to be removed.
... mystyles.removerule(0); you can rewrite this to use the standard deleterule() method very easily: mystyles.deleterule(0); specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom)the definition of 'cssstylesheet.removerule()' in that specification.
CSSUnparsedValue.keys() - Web APIs
the cssunparsedvalue.keys() method returns a new array iterator object that contains the keys for each index in the array.
... syntax cssunparsedvalue.keys() parameters none.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'keys()' in that specification.
CSSUnparsedValue.length - Web APIs
the length read-only property of the cssunparsedvalue interface returns the number of items in the object.
... syntax var length = cssunparsedvalue.length; value an integer.
... examples in this example we employ the cssunparsedvalue.cssunparsedvalue() constructor, then query the length: let values = new cssunparsedvalue( ['1em', '#445566', '-45px'] ); console.log( values.length ) // 3 specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'length' in that specification.
CSSUnparsedValue.values() - Web APIs
the cssunparsedvalue.values() method returns a new array iterator object that contains the values for each index in the cssunparsedvalue object.
... syntax cssunparsedvalue.values() parameters none.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'values()' in that specification.
CSSValueList.length - Web APIs
the length read-only property of the cssvaluelist interface represents the number of cssvalues in the list.
... syntax var length = cssvaluelist.length; value an unsigned long representing the number of cssvalues.
... specifications specification status comment document object model (dom) level 2 style specificationthe definition of 'cssvaluelist.length' in that specification.
CSSVariableReferenceValue() - Web APIs
creates a new cssvariablereferencevalue.
... syntax new cssvariablereferencevalue(variable[, fallback]]) parameters variable a custom property name.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'cssvariablereferencevalue()' in that specification.
CSSVariableReferenceValue.fallback - Web APIs
the fallback read-only property of the cssvariablereferencevalue interface returns the custom property fallback value of the cssvariablereferencevalue.
... syntax var fallback = cssvariablereferencevalue.fallback; value a cssunparsedvalue.
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'fallback' in that specification.
CSSVariableReferenceValue.variable - Web APIs
the variable property of the cssvariablereferencevalue interface returns the custom property name of the cssvariablereferencevalue.
... syntax var variable = cssvariablereferencevalue.variable; value a usvstring beginning with -- (that is, a custom property name).
... specifications specification status comment css typed om level 1the definition of 'variable' in that specification.
CSS Counter Styles - Web APIs
the css counter styles module allows to define custom counter styles, which can be used for css list-marker and generated-content counters.
... interfaces csscounterstylerule represents an @counter-style rule.
... specifications specification status comment css counter styles level 3 candidate recommendation initial definition ...
How whitespace is handled by HTML, CSS, and in the DOM - Web APIs
creating space around and inside elements is the job of css.
... how does css process whitespace?
...there are rules in the browser engine that decide which whitespace characters are useful and which aren’t — these are specified at least in part in css text module level 3, and especially the parts about the css white-space property and whitespace processing details, but we also offer an easier explanation below.
-moz-outline-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in mozilla applications like firefox, the -moz-outline-radius css shorthand property can be used to give an element's outline rounded corners.
... /* one value */ -moz-outline-radius: 25px; /* two values */ -moz-outline-radius: 25px 1em; /* three values */ -moz-outline-radius: 25px 1em 12%; /* four values */ -moz-outline-radius: 25px 1em 12% 4mm; /* global values */ -moz-outline-radius: inherit; -moz-outline-radius: initial; -moz-outline-radius: unset; constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: -moz-outline-radius-bottomleft -moz-outline-radius-bottomright -moz-outline-radius-topleft -moz-outline-radius-topright syntax values elliptical outlines and <percentage> values follow the syntax described in border-radius.
... html <p>this element has a rounded outline!</p> css p { margin: 5px; border: 1px solid black; outline: dotted red; -moz-outline-radius: 12% 1em 25px; } result notes dotted or dashed radiused corners were rendered as solid until firefox 50, bug 382721 future versions of gecko/firefox may drop this property completely.
-moz-user-focus - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -moz-user-focus css property is used to indicate whether an element can have the focus.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax ignore | normal | select-after | select-before | select-menu | select-same | select-all | none examples html <input class="ignored" value="the user cannot focus on this element."> css .ignored { -moz-user-focus: ignore; } specifications not part of any standard.
... a similar property, user-focus, was proposed in early drafts of a predecessor of the css3 ui specification, but was rejected by the working group.
-webkit-box-reflect - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-box-reflect css property lets you reflect the content of an element in one specific direction.
...to achieve reflection on the web, the standard way is to use the css element() function.
...the standard way to do reflection in css is to use the css element() function.
-webkit-line-clamp - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-line-clamp css property allows limiting of the contents of a block container to the specified number of lines.
...the css overflow module level 3 specification also defines a line-clamp property, which is meant to replace this property and avoid its issues.
...</p> css p { width: 300px; display: -webkit-box; -webkit-box-orient: vertical; -webkit-line-clamp: 3; overflow: hidden; } result specifications specification status comment css overflow module level 3the definition of '-webkit-line-clamp' in that specification.
-webkit-overflow-scrolling - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-overflow-scrolling css property controls whether or not touch devices use momentum-based scrolling for a given element.
... </p> </div> css div { width: 100%; overflow: auto; } p { width: 200%; background: #f5f9fa; border: 2px solid #eaf2f4; padding: 10px; } .scroll-touch { -webkit-overflow-scrolling: touch; /* lets it scroll lazy */ } .scroll-auto { -webkit-overflow-scrolling: auto; /* stops scrolling immediately */ } results specifications not part of any standard.
... apple has a description in the safari css reference.
-webkit-text-fill-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-text-fill-color css property specifies the fill color of characters of text.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples changing the fill color css p { margin: 0; font-size: 3em; -webkit-text-fill-color: green; } html <p>this text is green.</p> results specifications specification status comment compatibility standardthe definition of '-webkit-text-fill-color' in that specification.
... living standard initial standardization safari css reference '-webkit-text-fill-color' in that document.
-webkit-text-stroke-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-text-stroke-color css property specifies the stroke color of characters of text.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples varying the stroke color html <p>text with stroke</p> <input type="color" value="#ff0000"> css p { margin: 0; font-size: 4em; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 3px; -webkit-text-stroke-color: #ff0000; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } javascript var colorpicker = document.queryselector("input"); colorpicker.addeventlistener("change", function(evt) { document.queryselector("p").style.webkittextstrokecolor = evt.target.value; }); results specifications specific...
... living standard initial standardization safari css reference '-webkit-text-stroke-color' in that document.
-webkit-text-stroke-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-text-stroke-width css property specifies the width of the stroke for text.
... formal definition initial value0applies toall elementsinheritedyescomputed valueabsolute <length>animation typediscrete formal syntax <length> examples varying stroke widths css p { margin: 0; font-size: 4em; -webkit-text-stroke-color: red; } #thin { -webkit-text-stroke-width: thin; } #medium { -webkit-text-stroke-width: 3px; } #thick { -webkit-text-stroke-width: 1.5mm; } html <p id="thin">thin stroke</p> <p id="medium">medium stroke</p> <p id="thick">thick stroke</p> results specifications specification status comment ...
... living standard initial standardization safari css reference '-webkit-text-stroke-width' in that document.
::-webkit-inner-spin-button - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-inner-spin-button css pseudo-element is used to style the inner part of the spinner button of number picker input elements.
... changing the cursor in the spin controls in this example, the css cursor is changed to pointer whenever the cursor is positioned over the inner part of the input's spin controls.
... html <input type="number"> css input[type=number]::-webkit-inner-spin-button { cursor: pointer; } result specifications not part of any standard.
::cue - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS::cue
the ::cue css pseudo-element matches webvtt cues within a selected element.
... syntax ::cue | ::cue( <selector> ) permitted properties rules whose selectors include this element may only use the following css properties: background background-attachment background-clip background-color background-image background-origin background-position background-repeat background-size color font font-family font-size font-stretch font-style font-variant font-weight line-height opacity outline outline-color outline-style outline-width ruby-position text-combine-upright text-decoration ...
...text-decoration-color text-decoration-line text-decoration-style text-decoration-thickness text-shadow visibility white-space examples styling webvtt cues as white-on-black the following css sets the cue style so that the text is white and the background is a translucent black box.
::grammar-error - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::grammar-error css pseudo-element represents a text segment which the user agent has flagged as grammatically incorrect.
... allowable properties only a small subset of css properties can be used in a rule with ::grammar-error in its selector: color background-color cursor caret-color outline and its longhands text-decoration and its associated properties text-emphasis-color text-shadow syntax ::grammar-error examples simple document grammar check in this example, eventual supporting browsers should highlight any flagged grammatical errors with the styles shown.
... html <p>my friends is coming to the party tonight.</p> css ::grammar-error { text-decoration: underline red; color: red; } result specifications specification status comment css pseudo-elements level 4the definition of '::grammar-error' in that specification.
::placeholder - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::placeholder css pseudo-element represents the placeholder text in an <input> or <textarea> element.
... ::placeholder { color: blue; font-size: 1.5em; } only the subset of css properties that apply to the ::first-line pseudo-element can be used in a rule using ::placeholder in its selector.
... mdn basic form hints placeholders in form fields are harmful — nielsen norman group examples red text html <input placeholder="type something here!"> css input::placeholder { color: red; font-size: 1.2em; font-style: italic; } result green text html <input placeholder="type something here..."> css input::placeholder { color: green; } result specifications specification status comment css pseudo-elements level 4the definition of '::placeholder' in that specification.
::slotted() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS::slotted
the ::slotted() css pseudo-element represents any element that has been placed into a slot inside an html template (see using templates and slots for more information).
... this only works when used inside css placed within a shadow dom.
...shazaam</p> <span slot="person-age">immortal</span> <span slot="person-occupation">superhero</span> </person-details> specifications specification status comment css scoping module level 1the definition of '::slotted' in that specification.
::spelling-error - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::spelling-error css pseudo-element represents a text segment which the user agent has flagged as incorrectly spelled.
... allowable properties only a small subset of css properties can be used in a rule with ::spelling-error in its selector: color background-color cursor caret-color outline and its longhands text-decoration and its associated properties text-emphasis-color text-shadow syntax ::spelling-error examples simple document spell check in this example, eventual supporting browsers should highlight any flagged spelling errors with the styles shown.
... html <p contenteditable spellcheck="true">my friends are coegdfgfddffbgning to the party tonight.</p> css ::spelling-error { text-decoration: wavy red; } result specifications specification status comment css pseudo-elements level 4the definition of '::spelling-error' in that specification.
:checked - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:checked
the :checked css pseudo-class selector represents any radio (<input type="radio">), checkbox (<input type="checkbox">), or option (<option> in a <select>) element that is checked or toggled to an on state.
...="yes"> <label for="yes">yes</label> <input type="radio" name="my-input" id="no"> <label for="no">no</label> </div> <div> <input type="checkbox" name="my-checkbox" id="opt-in"> <label for="opt-in">check me!</label> </div> <select name="my-select" id="fruit"> <option value="opt1">apples</option> <option value="opt2">grapes</option> <option value="opt3">pears</option> </select> css div, select { margin: 8px; } /* labels for checked inputs */ input:checked + label { color: red; } /* radio element, when checked */ input[type="radio"]:checked { box-shadow: 0 0 0 3px orange; } /* checkbox element, when checked */ input[type="checkbox"]:checked { box-shadow: 0 0 0 3px hotpink; } /* option elements, when selected */ option:checked { box-shadow: 0 0 0 3px lime; co...
...><td>[cell text]</td><td>[cell text]</td></tr> <tr><td>[cell text]</td><td>[cell text]</td><td>[cell text]</td></tr> <tr class="expandable"><td>[more text]</td><td>[more text]</td><td>[more text]</td></tr> <tr class="expandable"><td>[more text]</td><td>[more text]</td><td>[more text]</td></tr> </tbody> </table> <label for="expand-toggle" id="expand-btn">toggle hidden rows</label> css /* hide the toggle checkbox */ #expand-toggle { display: none; } /* hide expandable content by default */ .expandable { visibility: collapse; background: #ddd; } /* style the button */ #expand-btn { display: inline-block; margin-top: 12px; padding: 5px 11px; background-color: #ff7; border: 1px solid; border-radius: 3px; } /* show hidden content when the checkbox is checked *...
:dir() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:dir
the :dir() css pseudo-class matches elements based on the directionality of the text contained in them.
...it doesn't account for styling directionality, i.e., the directionality set by css properties such as direction.
... formal syntax :dir( ltr | rtl ) examples html <div dir="rtl"> <span>test1</span> <div dir="ltr">test2 <div dir="auto">עִבְרִית</div> </div> </div> css :dir(ltr) { background-color: yellow; } :dir(rtl) { background-color: powderblue; } result specifications specification status comment html living standardthe definition of ':dir(ltr)' in that specification.
:empty - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:empty
the :empty css pseudo-class represents any element that has no children.
...comments, processing instructions, and css content do not affect whether an element is considered empty.
...--></p> </div> css body { display: flex; justify-content: space-around; } .box { background: pink; height: 80px; width: 80px; } .box:empty { background: lime; } result accessibility concerns assistive technology such as screen readers cannot parse interactive content that is empty.
:first-child - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :first-child css pseudo-class represents the first element among a group of sibling elements.
... syntax :first-child examples basic example html <div> <p>this text is selected!</p> <p>this text isn't selected.</p> </div> <div> <h2>this text isn't selected: it's not a `p`.</h2> <p>this text isn't selected.</p> </div> css p:first-child { color: lime; background-color: black; padding: 5px; } result styling a list html <ul> <li>item 1</li> <li>item 2</li> <li>item 3 <ul> <li>item 3.1</li> <li>item 3.2</li> <li>item 3.3</li> </ul> </li> </ul> css ul li { color: blue; } ul li:first-child { color: red; font-weight: bold; } result specifications spec...
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of ':first-child' in that specification.
:first-of-type - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :first-of-type css pseudo-class represents the first element of its type among a group of sibling elements.
... syntax :first-of-type examples styling the first paragraph html <h2>heading</h2> <p>paragraph 1</p> <p>paragraph 2</p> css p:first-of-type { color: red; font-style: italic; } result nested elements this example shows how nested elements can also be targeted.
... html <article> <div>this `div` is first!</div> <div>this <span>nested `span` is first</span>!</div> <div>this <em>nested `em` is first</em>, but this <em>nested `em` is last</em>!</div> <div>this <span>nested `span` gets styled</span>!</div> <b>this `b` qualifies!</b> <div>this is the final `div`.</div> </article> css article :first-of-type { background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':first-of-type' in that specification.
:host-context() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :host-context() css pseudo-class function selects the shadow host of the shadow dom containing the css it is used inside (so you can select a custom element from inside its shadow dom) — but only if the selector given as the function's parameter matches the shadow host's ancestor(s) in the place it sits inside the dom hierarchy.
... in this example we have a simple custom element — <context-span> — that you can wrap around text: <h1>host selectors <a href="#"><context-span>example</context-span></a></h1> inside the element's constructor, we create style and span elements, fill the span with the content of the custom element, and fill the style element with some css rules: let style = document.createelement('style'); let span = document.createelement('span'); span.textcontent = this.textcontent; const shadowroot = this.attachshadow({mode: 'open'}); shadowroot.appendchild(style); shadowroot.appendchild(span); style.textcontent = 'span:hover { text-decoration: underline; }' + ':host-context(h1) { font-style: italic; }' + ...
... specifications specification status comment css scoping module level 1the definition of ':host-context()' in that specification.
:host - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:host
the :host css pseudo-class selects the shadow host of the shadow dom containing the css it is used inside — in other words, this allows you to select a custom element from inside its shadow dom.
... in this example we have a simple custom element — <context-span> — that you can wrap around text: <h1>host selectors <a href="#"><context-span>example</context-span></a></h1> inside the element's constructor, we create style and span elements, fill the span with the content of the custom element, and fill the style element with some css rules: let style = document.createelement('style'); let span = document.createelement('span'); span.textcontent = this.textcontent; const shadowroot = this.attachshadow({mode: 'open'}); shadowroot.appendchild(style); shadowroot.appendchild(span); style.textcontent = 'span:hover { text-decoration: underline; }' + ':host-context(h1) { font-style: italic; }' + ...
... specifications specification status comment css scoping module level 1the definition of ':host' in that specification.
:lang() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:lang
the :lang() css pseudo-class matches elements based on the language they are determined to be in.
... html <div lang="en"><q>this english quote has a <q>nested</q> quote inside.</q></div> <div lang="fr"><q>this french quote has a <q>nested</q> quote inside.</q></div> <div lang="de"><q>this german quote has a <q>nested</q> quote inside.</q></div> css :lang(en) > q { quotes: '\201c' '\201d' '\2018' '\2019'; } :lang(fr) > q { quotes: '« ' ' »'; } :lang(de) > q { quotes: '»' '«' '\2039' '\203a'; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':lang()' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of ':lang()' in that specification.
:last-of-type - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :last-of-type css pseudo-class represents the last element of its type among a group of sibling elements.
... syntax :last-of-type examples styling the last paragraph html <h2>heading</h2> <p>paragraph 1</p> <p>paragraph 2</p> css p:last-of-type { color: red; font-style: italic; } result nested elements this example shows how nested elements can also be targeted.
... html <article> <div>this `div` is first.</div> <div>this <span>nested `span` is last</span>!</div> <div>this <em>nested `em` is first</em>, but this <em>nested `em` is last</em>!</div> <b>this `b` qualifies!</b> <div>this is the final `div`!</div> </article> css article :last-of-type { background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':last-of-type' in that specification.
:left - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:left
the :left css pseudo-class, used with the @page at-rule, represents all left-hand pages of a printed document.
... syntax :left examples setting a margin for left-hand pages @page :left { margin: 2in 3in; } specifications specification status comment css paged media module level 3the definition of ':left' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of ':left' in that specification.
:nth-last-child() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :nth-last-child() css pseudo-class matches elements based on their position among a group of siblings, counting from the end.
... table example html <table> <tbody> <tr> <td>first line</td> </tr> <tr> <td>second line</td> </tr> <tr> <td>third line</td> </tr> <tr> <td>fourth line</td> </tr> <tr> <td>fifth line</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> css table { border: 1px solid blue; } /* selects the last three elements */ tr:nth-last-child(-n+3) { background-color: pink; } /* selects every element starting from the second to last item */ tr:nth-last-child(n+2) { color: blue; } /* select only the last second element */ tr:nth-last-child(2) { font-weight: 600; } result quantity query a quantity query styles elements depending o...
... html <h4>a list of four items (styled):</h4> <ol> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> <li>three</li> <li>four</li> </ol> <h4>a list of two items (unstyled):</h4> <ol> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> </ol> css /* if there are at least three list items, style them all */ li:nth-last-child(n+3), li:nth-last-child(n+3) ~ li { color: red; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':nth-last-child' in that specification.
:only-child - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :only-child css pseudo-class represents an element without any siblings.
... syntax :only-child examples basic example html <div> <div>i am an only child.</div> </div> <div> <div>i am the 1st sibling.</div> <div>i am the 2nd sibling.</div> <div>i am the 3rd sibling, <div>but this is an only child.</div></div> </div> css div:only-child { color: red; } div { display: inline-block; margin: 6px; outline: 1px solid; } result a list example html <ol> <li>first <ul> <li>this list has just one element.</li> </ul> </li> <li>second <ul> <li>this list has three elements.</li> <li>this list has three elements.</li> <li>this list has three elements.</li> </ul> ...
...</li> </ol> css li li { list-style-type: disc; } li:only-child { color: red; list-style-type: square; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':only-child' in that specification.
:right - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:right
the :right css pseudo-class, used with the @page at-rule, represents all right-hand pages of a printed document.
... syntax :right examples setting margins for right-hand pages @page :right { margin: 2in 3in; } specifications specification status comment css paged media module level 3the definition of ':right' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of ':right' in that specification.
:scope - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:scope
the :scope css pseudo-class represents elements that are a reference point for selectors to match against.
... no support 20 — 32disabled disabled from version 20 until version 32 (exclusive): this feature is behind the layout.css.scope-pseudo.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
... full support 20disabled disabled from version 20: this feature is behind the layout.css.scope-pseudo.enabled preference (needs to be set to true).
:where() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:where
the :where() css pseudo-class function takes a selector list as its argument, and selects any element that can be selected by one of the selectors in that list.
...in other versions of firefox it is behind a pref — layout.css.is-where-selectors.enabled).
...hrome, visit chrome://flags.edge no support nofirefox full support 78 full support 78 full support 77notes disabled notes enabled by default in firefox nightly.disabled from version 77: this feature is behind the layout.css.is-where-selectors.enabled preference (needs to be set to enabled).
@counter-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the @counter-style css at-rule lets you define counter styles that are not part of the predefined set of styles.
... @counter-style thumbs { system: cyclic; symbols: "\1f44d"; suffix: " "; } ul { list-style: thumbs; } the initial version of css defined a set of useful counter styles.
... specifications specification status comment css counter styles level 3the definition of 'counter-style' in that specification.
src - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@font-facesrc
the src css descriptor of the @font-face rule specifies the resource containing font data.
... as with other urls in css, the url may be relative, in which case it is resolved relative to the location of the style sheet containing the @font-face rule.
...| local( <family-name> ) ]#where <family-name> = <string> | <custom-ident>+ examples specifying font resources using url() and local() @font-face { font-family: examplefont; src: local(example font), url('examplefont.woff') format("woff"), url('examplefont.otf') format("opentype"); } specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'src' in that specification.
unicode-range - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the unicode-range css descriptor sets the specific range of characters to be used from a font defined by @font-face and made available for use on the current page.
... in the css we are in effect defining a completely separate @font-face that only includes a single character in it, meaning that only this character will be styled with this font.
... html <div>me & you = us</div> css @font-face { font-family: 'ampersand'; src: local('times new roman'); unicode-range: u+26; } div { font-size: 4em; font-family: ampersand, helvetica, sans-serif; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'unicode-range' in that specification.
-moz-device-pixel-ratio - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -moz-device-pixel-ratio gecko-only css media feature can be used to apply styles based on the number of device pixels per css pixel.
... syntax <number> the number of device pixels per css pixel.
... example: @media (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2), /* webkit-based browsers */ (min--moz-device-pixel-ratio: 2), /* older firefox browsers (prior to firefox 16) */ (min-resolution: 2dppx), /* the standard way */ (min-resolution: 192dpi) /* dppx fallback */ note: see this csswg article for compatibility good practices regarding resolution and dppx.
aspect-ratio - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the aspect-ratio css media feature can be used to test the aspect ratio of the viewport.
...</div> css /* minimum aspect ratio */ @media (min-aspect-ratio: 8/5) { div { background: #9af; /* blue */ } } /* maximum aspect ratio */ @media (max-aspect-ratio: 3/2) { div { background: #9ff; /* cyan */ } } /* exact aspect ratio, put it at the bottom to avoid override*/ @media (aspect-ratio: 1/1) { div { background: #f9a; /* red */ } } _example used iframe and dataurl to en...
...type="range" min="100" max="250" step="5" value="165"> <iframe id="outer" src="data:text/html,<style> @media (min-aspect-ratio: 8/5) { div { background: %239af; } } @media (max-aspect-ratio: 3/2) { div { background: %239ff; } } @media (aspect-ratio: 1/1) { div { background: %23f9a; } }</style><div id='inner'> watch this element as you resize your viewport's width and height.</div>"> </iframe> css iframe{ display:block; } javascript outer.style.width=outer.style.height="165px" w.onchange=w.oninput=function(){ outer.style.width=w.value+"px" wf.textcontent="width:"+w.value } h.onchange=h.oninput=function(){ outer.style.height=h.value+"px" hf.textcontent="height:"+h.value } result specifications specification status comment media queries level...
color-index - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the color-index css media feature can be used to test the number of entries in the output device's color lookup table.
... examples basic example html <p>this is a test.</p> css p { color: black; } @media (color-index) { p { color: red; } } @media (min-color-index: 15000) { p { color: #1475ef; } } result custom stylesheet this html will apply a special stylesheet for devices that have at least 256 colors.
... <link rel="stylesheet" href="http://foo.bar.com/base.css" /> <link rel="stylesheet" media="all and (min-color-index: 256)" href="http://foo.bar.com/color-stylesheet.css" /> specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'color-index' in that specification.
color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediacolor
the color css media feature can be used to test the number of bits per color component (red, green, blue) of the output device.
... see applying color to html elements using css to learn more about using css to apply color to html.
... examples html <p>this text should be black on non-color devices, red on devices with a low number of colors, and greenish on devices with a high number of colors.</p> css p { color: black; } /* any color device */ @media (color) { p { color: red; } } /* any color device with at least 8 bits per color component */ @media (min-color: 8) { p { color: #24ba13; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'color' in that specification.
forced-colors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the forced-colors css media feature is used to detect if the user agent has enabled a forced colors mode where it enforces a user-chosen limited color palette on the page.
...the browser provides the color palette to authors through the css system color keywords and, if appropriate, it triggers the appropriate value of prefers-color-scheme so that authors can adapt the page.
... html <div class="colors">weird color box</div> css .colors { background-color: red; color: grey; } @media (forced-colors: active) { .colors { background-color: white; color: black; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 5the definition of 'forced-colors' in that specification.
shape - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediashape
the shape css media feature can be used to test the shape of the device to distinguish recrangular and round displays.
... examples basic example html <h1>hello world!</h1> css h1 { text-align: left; } @media (shape: rect) { h1 { text-align: left; } } @media (shape: round) { h1 { text-align: center; } } custom stylesheet this html will apply a special stylesheet for devices that have round screens.
... <head> <link rel="stylesheet" href="default.css" /> <link media="screen and (shape: rect)" rel="stylesheet" href="rectangle.css" /> <link media="screen and (shape: round)" rel="stylesheet" href="round.css" /> </head> specifications specification status css round display level 1the definition of 'shape' in that specification.
@namespace - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
@namespace is an at-rule that defines xml namespaces to be used in a css style sheet.
...to match this behaviour, the default namespace in css does not apply to attribute selectors.
...ult and prefixed namespaces @namespace url(http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml); @namespace svg url(http://www.w3.org/2000/svg); /* this matches all xhtml <a> elements, as xhtml is the default unprefixed namespace */ a {} /* this matches all svg <a> elements */ svg|a {} /* this matches both xhtml and svg <a> elements */ *|a {} specifications specification status comment css namespaces modulethe definition of '@namespace' in that specification.
marks - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@pagemarks
the marks css at-rule descriptor, used with the @page at-rule, adds crop and/or cross marks to the presentation of the document.
... formal definition related at-rule@pageinitial valuenonecomputed valueas specified formal syntax none | [ crop | cross ] examples adding crop and cross marks @page { marks: crop cross; } specifications specification status comment css paged media module level 3the definition of 'marks' in that specification.
... working draft initial definition this css property was initially proposed in css level 2, but was dropped from css level 2 (revision 1).
height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@viewportheight
the height css descriptor is a shorthand descriptor for setting both min-height and max-height of the viewport.
... syntax /* one value */ height: auto; height: 320px; height: 15em; /* two values */ height: 320px 200px; values auto the used value is calculated from the other css descriptors' values.
...as specified or the absolute lengthmax-height: the percentage as specified or the absolute length or none formal syntax <viewport-length>{1,2}where <viewport-length> = auto | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting minimum and maximum height @viewport { height: 500px; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"height" descriptor' in that specification.
max-height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the max-height css descriptor specifies the maximum height of the viewport of a document defined via the @viewport at-rule.
... syntax /* keyword value */ max-height: auto; /* <length> values */ max-height: 400px; max-height: 50em; max-height: 20cm; /* <percentage> value */ max-height: 75%; values auto the used value is calculated from the other css descriptors' values.
..., the corresponding absolute length; if specified as a percentage, the specified value; otherwise, auto formal syntax <viewport-length>where <viewport-length> = auto | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting viewport max height in pixels @viewport { max-height: 600px; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"max-height" descriptor' in that specification.
max-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the max-width css descriptor specifies the maximum width of the viewport of a document defined via the @viewport at-rule.
... syntax /* keyword value */ max-width: auto; /* <length> values */ max-width: 600px; max-width: 80em; max-width: 15cm; /* <percentage> value */ max-width: 75%; values auto the used value is calculated from the other css descriptors' values.
..., the corresponding absolute length; if specified as a percentage, the specified value; otherwise, auto formal syntax <viewport-length>where <viewport-length> = auto | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting viewport max width in pixels @viewport { max-width: 600px; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"max-width" descriptor' in that specification.
min-height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the min-height css descriptor specifies the minimum height of the viewport of a document defined via the @viewport at-rule.
... syntax /* keyword value */ min-height: auto; /* <length> values */ min-height: 120px; min-height: 20em; min-height: 10cm; /* <percentage> value */ min-height: 25%; values auto the used value is calculated from the other css descriptors' values.
..., the corresponding absolute length; if specified as a percentage, the specified value; otherwise, auto formal syntax <viewport-length>where <viewport-length> = auto | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting viewport min height in pixels @viewport { min-height: 200px; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"min-height" descriptor' in that specification.
min-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the min-width css descriptor specifies the minimum width of the viewport of a document defined via @viewport.
... syntax /* keyword value */ min-width: auto; /* <length> values */ min-width: 320px; min-width: 40em; min-width: 5cm; /* <percentage> value */ min-width: 25%; values auto the used value is calculated from the other css descriptors' values.
...th, the corresponding absolute length; if specified as a percentage, the specified value; otherwise, auto formal syntax <viewport-length>where <viewport-length> = auto | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting viewport min width in pixels @viewport { min-width: 200px; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"min-width" descriptor' in that specification.
viewport-fit - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the viewport-fit css @viewport descriptor controls how a document's viewport fills the screen.
... this descriptor hasn't been added to https://github.com/mdn/data/blob/master/css/at-rules.json yet.
... formal definition related at-rule@viewportinitial valueautocomputed valueas specified formal syntax auto | contain | cover examples scaling viewport to fit device display @viewport { viewport-fit: cover; } specifications specification status comment css round display level 1the definition of '"viewport-fit" descriptor' in that specification.
width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@viewportwidth
the width css descriptor is shorthand for setting both the min-width and the max-width descriptors of the viewport.
... syntax /* an example with one viewport value: */ @viewport { width: 320px; } /* an example with two viewport values: */ @viewport { width: 320px, 120px; } values auto the used value is calculated from the other css descriptors' values.
...ge as specified or the absolute lengthmax-width: the percentage as specified or the absolute length or none formal syntax <viewport-length>{1,2}where <viewport-length> = auto | <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting minimum and maximum width @viewport { width: 500px; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"min-width" descriptor' in that specification.
Box alignment in grid layout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
on this page we explore how box alignment works in the context of css grid layout.
... as this page aims to detail things which are specific to css grid layout and box alignment, it should be read in conjunction with the main box alignment page which details the common features of box alignment across layout methods.
... reference css properties justify-content align-content place-content justify-items align-items place-items justify-self align-self place-self row-gap column-gap gap glossary entries cross axis main axis guides alignment in grid layout external resources box alignment cheatsheet css grid, flexbox and box alignment thoughts on partial implementations of box alignment ...
Logical properties for margins, borders and padding - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
if you have looked at the main page for css logical properties and values you will see there are a huge number of properties listed.
... in a horizontal writing mode this css would apply a 5px margin to the top of the box and a 10px margin to the bottom.
... in a horizontal writing-mode this css would apply 5px of padding to the top of the box and 10px of padding to the bottom: .box { padding-block: 5px 10px; } note: the shorthand properties padding-inline and padding-block shipped in firefox 66.
Browser compatibility and Scroll Snap - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
scroll snapping is one of those nice parts of css in which the fallback is that you don't get the enhanced functionality, but everything still works.
...however, these properties shouldn't cause any problems to non-supporting browsers due to the way that browsers simply ignore css that they do not understand.
...this is the reality of developing new css — it can't be developed in a vacuum away from browser implementations.
Shapes From Images - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in this guide we will take a look at how we can create a shape from an image file with an alpha channel or even from a css gradient.
...rather than drawing a path with a complex polygon in css, you can create the shape in a graphics program and then use the path created by the pixels less opaque than a threshold value.
... creating shapes using a gradient as a css gradient is treated as an image, you can use a gradient to generate your shape, by having transparent or semi-transparent areas as part of the gradient.
Child combinator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the child combinator (>) is placed between two css selectors.
... syntax selector1 > selector2 { style properties } examples css span { background-color: white; } div > span { background-color: dodgerblue; } html <div> <span>span #1, in the div.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'child selectors' in that specification.
Comments - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSComments
a css comment is used to add explanatory notes to the code or to prevent the browser from interpreting specific parts of the style sheet.
...however, when using the <style> element, you may use <!-- --> to hide css from older browsers, although this is not recommended.
... specifications css 2.1 syntax and basic data types #comments ...
Column layouts - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
you will often need to create a layout which has a number of columns, and css provides several ways to do this.
... lining items up in rows and columns — grid layout if what you want is a layout where items line up in rows and columns then you should choose css grid layout.
... grid layout works on the direct children of the grid container in a similar way to the manner in which flexbox works on the direct children of the flex container, however with css grid you can line your items up in rows and columns — it is described as two-dimensional.
Media queries - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in css, use the @media at-rule to conditionally apply part of a style sheet based on the result of a media query.
... media queries in html in html, media queries can be applied to various elements: in the <link> element's media attribute, they define the media to which a linked resource (typically css) should be applied.
... specifications specification status comment media queries level 5 editor's draft css conditional rules module level 3 candidate recommendation media queries level 4 candidate recommendation media queries recommendation css level 2 (revision 1) recommendation initial definition ...
align-self - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the align-self css property overrides a grid or flex item's align-items value.
...baseline<overflow-position> = unsafe | safe<self-position> = center | start | end | self-start | self-end | flex-start | flex-end examples html <section> <div>item #1</div> <div>item #2</div> <div>item #3</div> </section> css section { display: flex; align-items: center; height: 120px; background: beige; } div { height: 60px; background: cyan; margin: 5px; } div:nth-child(3) { align-self: flex-end; background: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'align-self' in that specification.
... css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'align-self' in that specification.
<angle-percentage> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <angle-percentage> css data type represents a value that can be either a <angle> or a <percentage>.
... specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<angle-percentage>' in that specification.
... editor's draft css values and units module level 3the definition of '<angle-percentage>' in that specification.
<angle> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSangle
the <angle> css data type represents an angle value expressed in degrees, gradians, radians, or turns.
...le 90deg = 100grad = 0.25turn ≈ 1.5708rad setting a flat angle 180deg = 200grad = 0.5turn ≈ 3.1416rad setting a counterclockwise right angle -90deg = -100grad = -0.25turn ≈ -1.5708rad setting a null angle 0 = 0deg = 0grad = 0turn = 0rad specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<angle>' in that specification.
... editor's draft css values and units module level 3the definition of '<angle>' in that specification.
animation-duration - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-duration css property sets the length of time that an animation takes to complete one cycle.
... formal definition initial value0sapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <time># examples see css animations for examples.
... specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-duration' in that specification.
animation-iteration-count - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-iteration-count css property sets the number of times an animation sequence should be played before stopping.
... formal definition initial value1applies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <single-animation-iteration-count>#where <single-animation-iteration-count> = infinite | <number> examples see css animations for examples.
... specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-iteration-count' in that specification.
animation-name - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-name css property specifies the names of one or more @keyframes at-rules describing the animation or animations to apply to the element.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax [ none | <keyframes-name> ]#where <keyframes-name> = <custom-ident> | <string> examples see css animations for examples.
... specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-name' in that specification.
animation-play-state - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-play-state css property sets whether an animation is running or paused.
... formal definition initial valuerunningapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <single-animation-play-state>#where <single-animation-play-state> = running | paused examples see css animations for examples.
... specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-play-state' in that specification.
animation-timing-function - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the animation-timing-function css property sets how an animation progresses through the duration of each cycle.
... formal definition initial valueeaseapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <timing-function>#where <timing-function> = linear | <cubic-bezier-timing-function> | <step-timing-function>where <cubic-bezier-timing-function> = ease | ease-in | ease-out | ease-in-out | cubic-bezier(<number <a href="/docs/css/value_definition_syntax#brackets" title="brackets: enclose several entities, combinators, and multipliers to transform them as a single component">[0,1]>, <number>, <number <a href="/docs/css/value_definition_syntax#brackets" title="brackets: enclose several entities, combinators, and multipliers to transform them as a single component">[0,1]>, <number>)<step-timing-function> = step-start | step-...
...function: steps(5, jump-none); } .jump-both { animation-timing-function: steps(5, jump-both); } .start { animation-timing-function: steps(5, start); } .end { animation-timing-function: steps(5, end); } .step-start { animation-timing-function: step-start; } .step-end { animation-timing-function: step-end; } specifications specification status comment css animationsthe definition of 'animation-timing-function' in that specification.
appearance (-moz-appearance, -webkit-appearance) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the appearance css property is used to display an element using platform-native styling, based on the operating system's theme.
... syntax /* css basic user interface module level 4 values */ appearance: none; appearance: auto; appearance: menulist-button; appearance: textfield; /* "compat-auto" values, which have the same effect as 'auto' */ appearance: button; appearance: searchfield; appearance: textarea; appearance: push-button; appearance: slider-horizontal; appearance: checkbox; appearance: radio; appearance: square-button; appearan...
... specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 4the definition of 'appearance' in that specification.
backface-visibility - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the backface-visibility css property sets whether the back face of an element is visible when turned towards the user.
... </p> </td> </tr> </table> css /* classes that will show or hide the three back faces of the "cube" */ .showbf div { backface-visibility: visible; } .hidebf div { backface-visibility: hidden; } /* define the container div, the cube div, and a generic face */ .container { width: 150px; height: 150px; margin: 75px 0 0 75px; border: none; } .cube { width: 100%; height: 100%; perspective: 550px; perspect...
...6, 0, 0.7); transform: rotatex(90deg) translatez(50px); } .bottom { background: rgba(196, 0, 196, 0.7); transform: rotatex(-90deg) translatez(50px); } /* make the table a little nicer */ th, p, td { background-color: #eeeeee; margin: 0px; padding: 6px; font-family: sans-serif; text-align: left; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'backface-visibility' in that specification.
<basic-shape> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <basic-shape> css data type represents a shape used in the clip-path, shape-outside, and offset-path properties.
... html <div></div> css div { width: 300px; height: 300px; background: repeating-linear-gradient(red, orange 50px); clip-path: polygon(50% 0%, 60% 40%, 100% 50%, 60% 60%, 50% 100%, 40% 60%, 0% 50%, 40% 40%); animation: 4s poly infinite alternate ease-in-out; margin: 10px auto; } @keyframes poly { from { clip-path: polygon(50% 0%, 60% 40%, 100% 50%, 60% 60%, 50% 100%, 40% 60%, 0% 50%, 40% 40%); } ...
... to { clip-path: polygon(50% 30%, 100% 0%, 70% 50%, 100% 100%, 50% 70%, 0% 100%, 30% 50%, 0% 0%); } } result specifications specification status comment css shapes module level 1the definition of '<basic-shape>' in that specification.
border-block-end - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-end css property is a shorthand property for setting the individual logical block-end border property values in a single place in the style sheet.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-block-end-color border-block-end-style border-block-end-width syntax border-block-end: 1px; border-block-end: 2px dotted; border-block-end: medium dashed blue; border-block-end can be used to set the values for one or more of border-block-end-width, border-block-end-style, and border-block-end-color.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; border-block-end: 5px dashed blue; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-end' in that specification.
border-block-start - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-start css property is a shorthand property for setting the individual logical block-start border property values in a single place in the style sheet.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-block-start-color border-block-start-style border-block-start-width syntax border-block-start: 1px; border-block-start: 2px dotted; border-block-start: medium dashed blue; border-block-start can be used to set the values for one or more of border-block-start-width, border-block-start-style, and border-block-start-color.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; border-block-start: 5px dashed blue; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-start' in that specification.
border-block - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block css property is a shorthand property for setting the individual logical block border property values in a single place in the style sheet.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-block-color border-block-style border-block-width syntax values the border-block is specified with one or more of the following, in any order: <'border-width'> the width of the border.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; border-block: 5px dashed blue; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block' in that specification.
border-collapse - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-collapse css property sets whether cells inside a <table> have shared or separate borders.
...r><th>browser</th> <th>layout engine</th></tr> <tr><td class="fx">firefox</td> <td class="gk">gecko</td></tr> <tr><td class="ed">edge</td> <td class="tr">edgehtml</td></tr> <tr><td class="sa">safari</td> <td class="wk">webkit</td></tr> <tr><td class="ch">chrome</td> <td class="bk">blink</td></tr> <tr><td class="op">opera</td> <td class="bk">blink</td></tr> </tbody> </table> css .collapse { border-collapse: collapse; } .separate { border-collapse: separate; } table { display: inline-table; margin: 1em; border: dashed 5px; } table th, table td { border: solid 3px; } .fx { border-color: orange blue; } .gk { border-color: black red; } .ed { border-color: blue gold; } .tr { border-color: aqua; } .sa { border-color: silver blue; } .wk { border-color: gold blu...
...e; } .ch { border-color: red yellow green blue; } .bk { border-color: navy blue teal aqua; } .op { border-color: red; } result specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-collapse' in that specification.
border-end-end-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-end-end-radius css property defines a logical border radius on an element, which maps to a physical border radius that depends on on the element's writing-mode, direction, and text-orientation.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
...lso applies to ::first-letter.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the corresponding dimension of the border boxcomputed valuetwo absolute <length>s or <percentage>sanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <length-percentage>{1,2}where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples border radius with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example</p> </div> css content div { background-color: rebeccapurple; width: 120px; height: 120px; border-end-end-radius: 10px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; padding: 10px; background-color: #fff; border-end-end-radius: 10px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-end-end-ra...
border-end-start-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-end-start-radius css property defines a logical border radius on an element, which maps to a physical border radius depending on the element's writing-mode, direction, and text-orientation.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
...lso applies to ::first-letter.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the corresponding dimension of the border boxcomputed valuetwo absolute <length>s or <percentage>sanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <length-percentage>{1,2}where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples border radius with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example</p> </div> css div { background-color: rebeccapurple; width: 120px; height: 120px; border-end-start-radius: 10px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; padding: 10px; background-color: #fff; border-end-start-radius: 10px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-end-start-radi...
border-image-repeat - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-image-repeat css property defines how the edge regions of a source image are adjusted to fit the dimensions of an element's border image.
...it also applies to ::first-letter.inheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax [ stretch | repeat | round | space ]{1,2} examples repeating border images css #bordered { width: 12rem; margin-bottom: 1rem; padding: 1rem; border: 40px solid; border-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/4127/border.png") 27; border-image-repeat: stretch; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } html <div id="bordered">you can try out various border repetition rules on me!</div> <select id="repetition"> <option value="stretch">stretch</optio...
..."stretch repeat">stretch repeat</option> <option value="space round">space round</option> </select> javascript var repetition = document.getelementbyid("repetition"); repetition.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("bordered").style.borderimagerepeat = evt.target.value; }); results specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-image-repeat' in that specification.
border-image-slice - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-image-slice css property divides the image specified by border-image-source into regions.
...iv> </div> <ul> <li> <label for="width">slide to adjust <code>border-width</code></label> <input type="range" min="10" max="45" id="width"> <output id="width-output">30px</output> </li> <li> <label for="slice">slide to adjust <code>border-image-slice</code></label> <input type="range" min="10" max="45" id="slice"> <output id="slice-output">30</output> </li> </ul> css .wrapper { width: 400px; height: 300px; } div > div { width: 300px; height: 200px; border-width: 30px; border-style: solid; border-image: url(https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/56/bb98f533ef.png); border-image-slice: 30; border-image-repeat: round; } li { display: flex; place-content: center; } javascript const widthslider = document.getelementbyid('width'); const sl...
...r('input', () => { const newvalue = widthslider.value + 'px'; divelem.style.borderwidth = newvalue; widthoutput.textcontent = newvalue; }) sliceslider.addeventlistener('input', () => { const newvalue = sliceslider.value; divelem.style.borderimageslice = newvalue; sliceoutput.textcontent = newvalue; }) result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-image-slice' in that specification.
border-inline-end - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-end css property is a shorthand property for setting the individual logical inline-end border property values in a single place in the style sheet.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-inline-end-color border-inline-end-style border-inline-end-width syntax border-inline-end: 1px; border-inline-end: 2px dashed; border-inline-end: medium dashed blue; the physical border to which border-inline-end maps depends on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; border-inline-end: 5px dashed blue; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-end' in that specification.
border-inline-start - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-start css property is a shorthand property for setting the individual logical inline-start border property values in a single place in the style sheet.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-inline-start-color border-inline-start-style border-inline-start-width syntax border-inline-start: 1px; border-inline-start: 2px dotted; border-inline-start: medium dashed green; the physical border to which border-inline-start maps depends on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; border-inline-start: 5px dashed blue; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-start' in that specification.
border-inline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline css property is a shorthand property for setting the individual logical inline border property values in a single place in the style sheet.
...der-top-width: mediumborder-top-style: noneborder-top-color: currentcolorapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas each of the properties of the shorthand:border-top-width: the absolute length or 0 if border-top-style is none or hiddenborder-top-style: as specifiedborder-top-color: computed coloranimation typediscrete constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-inline-color border-inline-style border-inline-width syntax values the border-inline is specified with one or more of the following, in any order: <'border-width'> the width of the border.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; border-inline: 5px dashed blue; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline' in that specification.
border-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-radius css property rounds the corners of an element's outer border edge.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: border-bottom-left-radius border-bottom-right-radius border-top-left-radius border-top-right-radius syntax /* the syntax of the first radius allows one to four values */ /* radius is set for all 4 sides */ border-radius: 10px; /* top-left-and-bottom-right | top-right-and-bottom-left */ border-radius: 10px 5%; /* top-left | top-right-and-bottom-left | bottom-right */ border-...
... border: dashed; border-width: 2px 4px; border-radius: 40px; live samples sample 1 : http://jsfiddle.net/tripad/qngkj/2/ sample 2 : http://jsfiddle.net/tripad/qngkj/3/ sample 3 : http://jsfiddle.net/tripad/qngkj/4/ sample 4 : http://jsfiddle.net/tripad/qngkj/5/ sample 5 : http://jsfiddle.net/tripad/qngkj/6/ specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-radius' in that specification.
border-start-end-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-start-end-radius css property defines a logical border radius on an element, which maps to a physical border radius depending on the element's writing-mode, direction, and text-orientation.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
...lso applies to ::first-letter.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the corresponding dimension of the border boxcomputed valuetwo absolute <length>s or <percentage>sanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <length-percentage>{1,2}where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples border radius with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example</p> </div> css div { background-color: rebeccapurple; width: 120px; height: 120px; border-start-end-radius: 10px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; padding: 10px; background-color: #fff; border-start-end-radius: 10px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-start-end-radi...
border-start-start-radius - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-start-start-radius css property defines a logical border radius on an element, which maps to a physical border radius that depends on the element's writing-mode, direction, and text-orientation.
...as absolute length it can be expressed in any unit allowed by the css <length> data type.
...lso applies to ::first-letter.inheritednopercentagesrefer to the corresponding dimension of the border boxcomputed valuetwo absolute <length>s or <percentage>sanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <length-percentage>{1,2}where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples border radius with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example</p> </div> css div { background-color: rebeccapurple; width: 120px; height: 120px; border-start-start-radius: 10px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; padding: 10px; background-color: #fff; border-start-start-radius: 10px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-start-star...
bottom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSbottom
the bottom css property participates in setting the vertical position of a positioned element.
... html <p>this<br>is<br>some<br>tall,<br>tall,<br>tall,<br>tall,<br>tall<br>content.</p> <div class="fixed"><p>fixed</p></div> <div class="absolute"><p>absolute</p></div> css p { font-size: 30px; line-height: 2em; } div { width: 48%; text-align: center; background: rgba(55,55,55,.2); border: 1px solid blue; } .absolute { position: absolute; bottom: 0; left: 0; } .fixed { position: fixed; bottom: 0; right: 0; } result specifications specification status comment css positioned layout module level 3the definiti...
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'bottom' in that specification.
box-align - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSbox-align
warning: this is a property of the original css flexible box layout module draft, and has been replaced by a newer standard.
... the box-align css property specifies how an element aligns its contents across its layout in a perpendicular direction.
... formal definition initial valuestretchapplies toelements with a css display value of box or inline-boxinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax start | center | end | baseline | stretch examples setting box alignment <!doctype html> <html> <head> <title>css box-align example</title> <style> div.example { display: box; /* as specified */ display: -moz-box; /* mozilla */ display: -webkit-box;...
box-decoration-break - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the box-decoration-break css property specifies how an element's fragments should be rendered when broken across multiple lines, columns, or pages.
...see the css specification for details.
... specifications specification status comment css fragmentation module level 3the definition of 'box-decoration-break' in that specification.
box-pack - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSbox-pack
this is a property of the original css flexible box layout module draft, and has been replaced by a newer standard.
... the -moz-box-pack and -webkit-box-pack css properties specify how a -moz-box or -webkit-box packs its contents in the direction of its layout.
... formal definition initial valuestartapplies toelements with a css display value of -moz-box, -moz-inline-box, -webkit-box or -webkit-inline-boxinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax start | center | end | justify examples div.example { border-style: solid; display: -moz-box; /* mozilla */ display: -webkit-box; /* webkit */ /* make this box taller than the children, so there is room for the box-pack */ heig...
box-shadow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the box-shadow css property adds shadow effects around an element's frame.
... html <blockquote><q>you may shoot me with your words,<br/> you may cut me with your eyes,<br/> you may kill me with your hatefulness,<br/> but still, like air, i'll rise.</q> <p>&mdash; maya angelou</p> </blockquote> css blockquote { padding: 20px; box-shadow: inset 0 -3em 3em rgba(0,0,0,0.1), 0 0 0 2px rgb(255,255,255), 0.3em 0.3em 1em rgba(0,0,0,0.3); } result setting zero for offset and blur when the x-offset, y-offset, and blur are all zero, the box shadow will be a solid-colored outline of equal-size on all sides.
... html <div><p>hello world</p></div> css p { box-shadow: 0 0 0 2em #f4aab9, 0 0 0 4em #66ccff; margin: 4em; padding:1em; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'box-shadow' in that specification.
color-adjust - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the color-adjust css property sets what, if anything, the user agent may do to optimize the appearance of the element on the output device.
... css .my-box { background-color: black; background-image: linear-gradient(rgba(0, 0, 180, 0.5), rgba(70, 140, 220, 0.5)); color: #900; width: 15rem; height: 6rem; text-align: center; font: 24px "helvetica", sans-serif; display: flex; align-items: center; justify-content: center; color-adjust: exact; } html <div class="my-box"> <p>need more contrast!</p> </div> result sp...
...ecifications specification status comment css color adjustment module level 1the definition of 'color-adjust' in that specification.
column-fill - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-fill css property controls how an element's contents are balanced when broken into columns.
...the css `column-fill` property is used to spread the contents evenly across all the columns.
... </p> css .content-box { column-count: 4; column-rule: 1px solid black; column-fill: balance; } result specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'column-fill' in that specification.
Computed value - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the computed value of a css property is the value that is transferred from parent to child during inheritance.
... specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 2)the definition of 'computed-value' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'computed value' in that specification.
counter-set - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the counter-set css property sets a css counter to a given value.
... note: the counter's value can be incremented or decremented using the counter-increment css property.
...]+ | none examples setting named counters h1 { counter-set: chapter section 1 page; /* sets the chapter and page counters to 0, and the section counter to 1 */ } specifications specification status comment css lists module level 3the definition of 'counter-set' in that specification.
<display-legacy> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
css 2 used a single-keyword syntax for the display property, requiring separate keywords for block-level and inline-level variants of the same layout mode.
... html <div class="container"> <div>flex item</div> <div>flex item</div> </div> not a flex item css .container { display: inline-flex; } result in the new syntax the inline flex container would be created using two values, inline for the outer display type, and flex for the inner display type.
... .container { display: inline flex; } specifications specification status css display module level 3the definition of 'display-legacy' in that specification.
flex-basis - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the flex-basis css property sets the initial main size of a flex item.
...ples setting flex item initial sizes html <ul class="container"> <li class="flex flex1">1: flex-basis test</li> <li class="flex flex2">2: flex-basis test</li> <li class="flex flex3">3: flex-basis test</li> <li class="flex flex4">4: flex-basis test</li> <li class="flex flex5">5: flex-basis test</li> </ul> <ul class="container"> <li class="flex flex6">6: flex-basis test</li> </ul> css .container { font-family: arial, sans-serif; margin: 0; padding: 0; list-style-type: none; display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; } .flex { background: #6ab6d8; padding: 10px; margin-bottom: 50px; border: 3px solid #2e86bb; color: white; font-size: 14px; text-align: center; position: relative; } .flex:after { position: absolute; z-index: 1; left: 0; top: 100%; ma...
... } .flex3 { flex-basis: min-content; } .flex3:after { content: 'min-content'; } .flex4 { flex-basis: fit-content; } .flex4:after { content: 'fit-content'; } .flex5 { flex-basis: content; } .flex5:after { content: 'content'; } .flex6 { flex-basis: fill; } .flex6:after { content: 'fill'; } results specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'flex-basis' in that specification.
flex-flow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSflex-flow
the flex-flow css shorthand property specifies the direction of a flex container, as well as its wrapping behavior.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: flex-direction flex-wrap syntax /* flex-flow: <'flex-direction'> */ flex-flow: row; flex-flow: row-reverse; flex-flow: column; flex-flow: column-reverse; /* flex-flow: <'flex-wrap'> */ flex-flow: nowrap; flex-flow: wrap; flex-flow: wrap-reverse; /* flex-flow: <'flex-direction'> and <'flex-wrap'> */ flex-flow: row nowrap; flex-flow: column wrap; flex-flow: column-reverse wrap-reverse; /* global values */ flex-flow: inherit; flex-flow: initial; flex-flow: unset; values se...
...flex items are laid out in multiple lines */ flex-flow: column-reverse wrap; } specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'flex-flow' in that specification.
<flex> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <flex> css data type denotes a flexible length within a grid container.
...as with all css dimensions, there is no space between the unit and the number.
... examples 1fr /* using an integer value */ 2.5fr /* using a float value */ specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of '<flex>' in that specification.
font-kerning - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-kerning css property sets the use of the kerning information stored in a font.
...ij</textarea> css div { font-size: 2rem; font-family: serif; } #nokern { font-kerning: none; } #kern { font-kerning: normal; } javascript let input = document.getelementbyid('input'); let kern = document.getelementbyid('kern'); let nokern = document.getelementbyid('nokern'); input.addeventlistener('keyup', function() { kern.textcontent = input.value; /* update content */ nokern.textcontent = i...
...nput.value; }); kern.textcontent = input.value; /* initialize content */ nokern.textcontent = input.value; specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-kerning' in that specification.
font-variant-numeric - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variant-numeric css property controls the usage of alternate glyphs for numbers, fractions, and ordinal markers.
...[ <numeric-figure-values> | <numeric-spacing-values> | <numeric-fraction-values> | ordinal | slashed-zero ]where <numeric-figure-values> = [ lining-nums | oldstyle-nums ]<numeric-spacing-values> = [ proportional-nums | tabular-nums ]<numeric-fraction-values> = [ diagonal-fractions | stacked-fractions ] examples setting ordinal numeric forms html <p class="ordinal">1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th</p> css /* this example uses the source sans pro opentype font, developed by adobe and used here under the terms of the sil open font license, version 1.1: http://scripts.sil.org/cms/scripts/page.php?item_id=ofl_web */ @font-face { font-family: "source sans pro"; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400; src: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/15757/sourcesanspro-regular.otf") format("opentype...
..."); } .ordinal { font-variant-numeric: ordinal; font-family: "source sans pro"; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-variant-numeric' in that specification.
grid-area - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSgrid-area
the grid-area css shorthand property specifies a grid item’s size and location within a grid by contributing a line, a span, or nothing (automatic) to its grid placement, thereby specifying the edges of its grid area.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: grid-column-end grid-column-start grid-row-end grid-row-start syntax /* keyword values */ grid-area: auto; grid-area: auto / auto; grid-area: auto / auto / auto; grid-area: auto / auto / auto / auto; /* <custom-ident> values */ grid-area: some-grid-area; grid-area: some-grid-area / another-grid-area; /* <integer> && <custom-ident>?
...] | [ span && [ <integer> | <custom-ident> ] ] examples setting grid areas html <div id="grid"> <div id="item1"></div> <div id="item2"></div> <div id="item3"></div> </div> css #grid { display: grid; height: 100px; grid-template: repeat(4, 1fr) / 50px 100px; } #item1 { background-color: lime; grid-area: 2 / 2 / auto / span 3; } #item2 { background-color: yellow; } #item3 { background-color: blue; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-area' in that specification.
grid-auto-flow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-auto-flow css property controls how the auto-placement algorithm works, specifying exactly how auto-placed items get flowed into the grid.
... html <div id="grid"> <div id="item1"></div> <div id="item2"></div> <div id="item3"></div> <div id="item4"></div> <div id="item5"></div> </div> <select id="direction" onchange="changegridautoflow()"> <option value="column">column</option> <option value="row">row</option> </select> <input id="dense" type="checkbox" onchange="changegridautoflow()"> <label for="dense">dense</label> css #grid { height: 200px; width: 200px; display: grid; grid-gap: 10px; grid-template: repeat(4, 1fr) / repeat(2, 1fr); grid-auto-flow: column; /* or 'row', 'row dense', 'column dense' */ } #item1 { background-color: lime; grid-row-start: 3; } #item2 { background-color: yellow; } #item3 { background-color: blue; } #item4 { grid-column-start: 2; background-color: red; } ...
..."row" : "column"; if (dense.checked) { gridautoflow += " dense"; } grid.style.gridautoflow = gridautoflow; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-auto-flow' in that specification.
grid-column-end - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-column-end css property specifies a grid item’s end position within the grid column by contributing a line, a span, or nothing (automatic) to its grid placement, thereby specifying the block-end edge of its grid area.
...] | [ span && [ <integer> | <custom-ident> ] ] examples setting column end for a grid item html <div class="wrapper"> <div class="box1">one</div> <div class="box2">two</div> <div class="box3">three</div> <div class="box4">four</div> <div class="box5">five</div> </div> css .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr); grid-auto-rows: 100px; } .box1 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-column-end: 4; grid-row-start: 1; grid-row-end: 3; } .box2 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-row-start: 3; grid-row-end: 5; } * {box-sizing: border-box;} .wrapper { border: 2px solid #f76707; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff4e6; } .wra...
...pper > div { border: 2px solid #ffa94d; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #ffd8a8; padding: 1em; color: #d9480f; } .nested { border: 2px solid #ffec99; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff9db; padding: 1em; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-column-end' in that specification.
grid-column-start - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-column-start css property specifies a grid item’s start position within the grid column by contributing a line, a span, or nothing (automatic) to its grid placement.
...] | [ span && [ <integer> | <custom-ident> ] ] examples setting column start for a grid item html <div class="wrapper"> <div class="box1">one</div> <div class="box2">two</div> <div class="box3">three</div> <div class="box4">four</div> <div class="box5">five</div> </div> css .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr); grid-auto-rows: 100px; } .box1 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-column-end: 4; grid-row-start: 1; grid-row-end: 3; } .box2 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-row-start: 3; grid-row-end: 5; } * {box-sizing: border-box;} .wrapper { border: 2px solid #f76707; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff4e6; } .wra...
...pper > div { border: 2px solid #ffa94d; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #ffd8a8; padding: 1em; color: #d9480f; } .nested { border: 2px solid #ffec99; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff9db; padding: 1em; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-column-start' in that specification.
grid-column - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-column css shorthand property specifies a grid item's size and location within a grid column by contributing a line, a span, or nothing (automatic) to its grid placement, thereby specifying the inline-start and inline-end edge of its grid area.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: grid-column-end grid-column-start syntax this property is specified as one or two <grid-line> values.
...] | [ span && [ <integer> | <custom-ident> ] ] examples setting grid column size and location html <div id="grid"> <div id="item1"></div> <div id="item2"></div> <div id="item3"></div> </div> css #grid { display: grid; height: 100px; grid-template-columns: repeat(6, 1fr); grid-template-rows: 100px; } #item1 { background-color: lime; } #item2 { background-color: yellow; grid-column: 2 / 4; } #item3 { background-color: blue; grid-column: span 2 / 7; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of '...
grid-row-end - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-row-end css property specifies a grid item’s end position within the grid row by contributing a line, a span, or nothing (automatic) to its grid placement, thereby specifying the inline-end edge of its grid area.
...] | [ span && [ <integer> | <custom-ident> ] ] examples setting row end for a grid item html <div class="wrapper"> <div class="box1">one</div> <div class="box2">two</div> <div class="box3">three</div> <div class="box4">four</div> <div class="box5">five</div> </div> css .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr); grid-auto-rows: 100px; } .box1 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-column-end: 4; grid-row-start: 1; grid-row-end: 3; } .box2 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-row-start: 3; grid-row-end: 5; } * {box-sizing: border-box;} .wrapper { border: 2px solid #f76707; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff4e6; } .wra...
...pper > div { border: 2px solid #ffa94d; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #ffd8a8; padding: 1em; color: #d9480f; } .nested { border: 2px solid #ffec99; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff9db; padding: 1em; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-row-end' in that specification.
grid-row-start - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-row-start css property specifies a grid item’s start position within the grid row by contributing a line, a span, or nothing (automatic) to its grid placement, thereby specifying the inline-start edge of its grid area.
...] | [ span && [ <integer> | <custom-ident> ] ] examples setting row start for a grid item html <div class="wrapper"> <div class="box1">one</div> <div class="box2">two</div> <div class="box3">three</div> <div class="box4">four</div> <div class="box5">five</div> </div> css .wrapper { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr); grid-auto-rows: 100px; } .box1 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-column-end: 4; grid-row-start: 1; grid-row-end: 3; } .box2 { grid-column-start: 1; grid-row-start: 3; grid-row-end: 5; } * {box-sizing: border-box;} .wrapper { border: 2px solid #f76707; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff4e6; } .wra...
...pper > div { border: 2px solid #ffa94d; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #ffd8a8; padding: 1em; color: #d9480f; } .nested { border: 2px solid #ffec99; border-radius: 5px; background-color: #fff9db; padding: 1em; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-row-start' in that specification.
grid-row - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSgrid-row
the grid-row css shorthand property specifies a grid item’s size and location within the grid row by contributing a line, a span, or nothing (automatic) to its grid placement, thereby specifying the inline-start and inline-end edge of its grid area.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: grid-row-end grid-row-start syntax /* keyword values */ grid-row: auto; grid-row: auto / auto; /* <custom-ident> values */ grid-row: somegridarea; grid-row: somegridarea / someothergridarea; /* <integer> + <custom-ident> values */ grid-row: somegridarea 4; grid-row: 4 somegridarea / 6; /* span + <integer> + <custom-ident> values */ grid-row: span 3; grid-row: span somegridar...
...] | [ span && [ <integer> | <custom-ident> ] ] examples setting grid row size and location html <div id="grid"> <div id="item1"></div> <div id="item2"></div> <div id="item3"></div> </div> css #grid { display: grid; height: 200px; grid-template-columns: 200px; grid-template-rows: repeat(6, 1fr); } #item1 { background-color: lime; } #item2 { background-color: yellow; grid-row: 2 / 4; } #item3 { background-color: blue; grid-row: span 2 / 7; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-r...
grid-template-areas - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-template-areas css property specifies named grid areas, establishing the cells in the grid and assigning them names.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies togrid containersinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax none | <string>+ examples specifying named grid areas html <section id="page"> <header>header</header> <nav>navigation</nav> <main>main area</main> <footer>footer</footer> </section> css #page { display: grid; width: 100%; height: 250px; grid-template-areas: "head head" "nav main" "nav foot"; grid-template-rows: 50px 1fr 30px; grid-template-columns: 150px 1fr; } #page > header { grid-area: head; background-color: #8ca0ff; } #page > nav { grid-area: nav; background-color: #ffa08c; } #page > main { grid-area:...
... main; background-color: #ffff64; } #page > footer { grid-area: foot; background-color: #8cffa0; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-template-areas' in that specification.
grid-template-columns - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-template-columns css property defines the line names and track sizing functions of the grid columns.
...)where <track-breadth> = <length-percentage> | <flex> | min-content | max-content | auto<inflexible-breadth> = <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | auto<fixed-breadth> = <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples specifying grid column sizes html <div id="grid"> <div id="areaa">a</div> <div id="areab">b</div> </div> css #grid { display: grid; width: 100%; grid-template-columns: 50px 1fr; } #areaa { background-color: lime; } #areab { background-color: yellow; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-template-columns' in that specification.
... candidate recommendation initial definition css grid layout module level 2the definition of 'subgrid' in that specification.
grid-template-rows - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-template-rows css property defines the line names and track sizing functions of the grid rows.
...)where <track-breadth> = <length-percentage> | <flex> | min-content | max-content | auto<inflexible-breadth> = <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | auto<fixed-breadth> = <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples specifying grid row sizes html <div id="grid"> <div id="areaa">a</div> <div id="areab">b</div> </div> css #grid { display: grid; height: 100px; grid-template-rows: 30px 1fr; } #areaa { background-color: lime; } #areab { background-color: yellow; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-template-rows' in that specification.
... candidate recommendation initial definition css grid layout module level 2the definition of 'subgrid' in that specification.
grid - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSgrid
the grid css property is a shorthand property that sets all of the explicit and implicit grid properties in a single declaration.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: grid-auto-columns grid-auto-flow grid-auto-rows grid-template-areas grid-template-columns grid-template-rows syntax /* <'grid-template'> values */ grid: none; grid: "a" 100px "b" 1fr; grid: [linename1] "a" 100px [linename2]; grid: "a" 200px "b" min-content; grid: "a" minmax(100px, max-content) "b" 20%; grid: 100px / 200px; grid: minmax(400px, min-content) / repeat(auto-fill...
.../ <'grid-template-columns'> examples creating a grid layout html <div id="container"> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> </div> css #container { display: grid; grid: repeat(2, 60px) / auto-flow 80px; } #container > div { background-color: #8ca0ff; width: 50px; height: 50px; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid' in that specification.
image() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the image() css function defines an <image> in a similar fashion to the <url> function, but with added functionality including specifying the image's directionality, specifying fallback images for when the preferred image is not supported, displaying just a part of that image defined by a media fragment, and specifying a solid color as a fallback in case none of the specified images are able to be rendered.
...while this can and should be done by including a background-color on every background image, the css image() function allows adding allows only including background colors should an image fail to load, which means you can add a fall back color should a transparent png/gif/webp not load.
... specifications specification status comment css images module level 4the definition of 'image()' in that specification.
ime-mode - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSime-mode
the ime-mode css property controls the state of the input method editor (ime) for text fields.
...users may correct the inappropriate behavior of sites that don't follow this recommendation by placing the following css into their user stylesheet: input[type=password] { ime-mode: auto !important; } the mac version of gecko 1.9 (firefox 3) can't recover the previous state of the ime when a field for which it is disabled loses focus, so mac users may get grumpy when you use the disabled value.
... specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 3the definition of 'ime-mode' in that specification.
Inheritance - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in css, inheritance controls what happens when no value is specified for a property on an element.
... css properties can be categorized in two types: inherited properties, which by default are set to the computed value of the parent element non-inherited properties, which by default are set to initial value of the property refer to any css property definition to see whether a specific property inherits by default ("inherited: yes") or not ("inherited: no").
... see also css values for controlling inheritance: inherit, initial, unset, and revert introducing the css cascade cascade and inheritance css key concepts: css syntax, at-rule, comments, specificity and inheritance, the box, layout modes and visual formatting models, and margin collapsing, or the initial, computed, resolved, specified, used, and actual values.
initial-letter-align - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the initial-letter-align css property specifies the alignment of initial letters within a paragraph.
... first child of a block containerinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax [ auto | alphabetic | hanging | ideographic ] examples aligning initial letter html <p class="auto ">initial letter - auto</p> <p class="alphabetic">initial letter - alphabetic</p> <p class="hanging">initial letter - hanging</p> <p class="ideographic">initial letter - ideographic</p> css .auto { -webkit-initial-letter-align: auto; initial-letter-align: auto; } .alphabetic { -webkit-initial-letter-align: alphabetic; initial-letter-align: alphabetic; } .hanging { -webkit-initial-letter-align: hanging; initial-letter-align: hanging; } .ideographic { -webkit-initial-letter-align: ideographic; initial-letter-align: ideographic; } result specifications ...
... specification status comment css inline layoutthe definition of 'initial-letter-align' in that specification.
Initial value - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the initial value of a css property is its default value, as listed in its definition table in the specification.
... specifications specification status comment css cascade 4 formal definition.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'initial value' in that specification.
inset-block - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the inset-block css property defines the logical block start and end offsets of an element, which maps to physical offsets depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
...values */ inset-block: 3px 10px; inset-block: 2.4em 3em; inset-block: 10px; /* value applied to start and end */ /* <percentage>s of the width or height of the containing block */ inset-block: 10% 5%; /* keyword value */ inset-block: auto; /* global values */ inset-block: inherit; inset-block: initial; inset-block: unset; constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: inset-block-end inset-block-start syntax values the inset-block property takes the same values as the left property.
...ition initial valueautoapplies topositioned elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-height of containing blockcomputed valuesame as box offsets: top, right, bottom, left properties except that directions are logicalanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <'top'>{1,2} examples setting block start and end offsets html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; position: relative; inset-block: 20px 50px; background-color: #c8c800; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'inset-block' in that specification.
inset-inline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the inset-inline css property defines the logical start and end offsets of an element in the inline direction, which maps to physical offsets depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
.../ inset-inline: 3px 10px; inset-inline: 2.4em 3em; inset-inline: 10px; /* value applied to start and end */ /* <percentage>s of the width or height of the containing block */ inset-inline: 10% 5%; /* keyword value */ inset-inline: auto; /* global values */ inset-inline: inherit; inset-inline: initial; inset-inline: unset; constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: inset-inline-end inset-inline-start syntax values the inset-inline property takes the same values as the left property.
...ition initial valueautoapplies topositioned elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valuesame as box offsets: top, right, bottom, left properties except that directions are logicalanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <'top'>{1,2} examples setting inline start and end offsets html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; position: relative; inset-inline: 20px 50px; background-color: #c8c800; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'inset-inline' in that specification.
justify-items - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css justify-items property defines the default justify-self for all items of the box, giving them all a default way of justifying each box along the appropriate axis.
... html <article class="container" tabindex="0"> <span>first child</span> <span>second child</span> <span>third child</span> <span>fourth child</span> </article> css html { font-family: helvetica, arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 1px; } article { background-color: red; display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; grid-auto-rows: 40px; grid-gap: 10px; width: 300px; justify-items: stretch; } article:hover, article:focus { justify-items: center; } article span { background-color: black; color: white; margin: 1px; text-align: c...
...enter; } article, span { padding: 10px; border-radius: 7px; } article { margin: 20px; } result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'justify-items' in that specification.
justify-self - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css justify-self property sets the way a box is justified inside its alignment container along the appropriate axis.
... html <article class="container"> <span>first child</span> <span>second child</span> <span>third child</span> <span>fourth child</span> </article> css html { font-family: helvetica, arial, sans-serif; letter-spacing: 1px; } article { background-color: red; display: grid; grid-template-columns: 1fr 1fr; grid-auto-rows: 40px; grid-gap: 10px; width: 300px; justify-items: stretch; } span:nth-child(2) { justify-self: start; } span:nth-child(3) { justify-self: center; } span:nth-child(4) { justify-self: end; } article span {...
... background-color: black; color: white; margin: 1px; text-align: center; } article, span { padding: 10px; border-radius: 7px; } article { margin: 20px; } result specifications specification status comment css box alignment module level 3the definition of 'justify-self' in that specification.
line-height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the line-height css property sets the height of a line box.
...</div> <!-- the first <h1> line-height is calculated from its own font-size (30px × 1.1) = 33px --> <!-- the second <h1> line-height results from the red div's font-size (15px × 1.1) = 16.5px, probably not what you want --> css .green { line-height: 1.1; border: solid limegreen; } .red { line-height: 1.1em; border: solid red; } h1 { font-size: 30px; } .box { width: 18em; display: inline-block; vertical-align: top; font-size: 15px; } result specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'line-height' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'line-height' in that specification.
list-style-image - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the list-style-image css property sets an image to be used as the list item marker.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies tolist itemsinheritedyescomputed valuenone or the image with its uri made absoluteanimation typediscrete formal syntax <url> | none examples setting list item images html <ul> <li>item 1</li> <li>item 2</li> </ul> css ul { list-style-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11981/starsolid.gif"); } result specifications specification status comment css lists module level 3the definition of 'list-style-image' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'list-style-image' in that specification.
list-style-position - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the list-style-position css property sets the position of the ::marker relative to a list item.
...l class="inside">list 1 <li>list item 1-1</li> <li>list item 1-2</li> <li>list item 1-3</li> <li>list item 1-4</li> </ul> <ul class="outside">list 2 <li>list item 2-1</li> <li>list item 2-2</li> <li>list item 2-3</li> <li>list item 2-4</li> </ul> <ul class="inside-img">list 3 <li>list item 3-1</li> <li>list item 3-2</li> <li>list item 3-3</li> <li>list item 3-4</li> </ul> css .inside { list-style-position: inside; list-style-type: square; } .outside { list-style-position: outside; list-style-type: circle; } .inside-img { list-style-position: inside; list-style-image: url("https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11979/starsolid.gif"); } result specifications specification status comment css lists module level 3the definition o...
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'list-style-position' in that specification.
margin-block - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the margin-block css shorthand property defines the logical block start and end margins of an element, which maps to physical margins depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: margin-block-end margin-block-start syntax values the margin-block property takes the same values as the margin-left property.
...ion initial value0applies tosame as margininheritednopercentagesdepends on layout modelcomputed valueif specified as a length, the corresponding absolute length; if specified as a percentage, the specified value; otherwise, autoanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'margin-left'>{1,2} examples setting block start and end margins html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; margin-block: 20px 40px; background-color: #c8c800; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'margin-block' in that specification.
margin-inline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the margin-inline css shorthand property is a shorthand property that defines both the logical inline start and end margins of an element, which maps to physical margins depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: margin-inline-end margin-inline-start syntax values the margin-inline property takes the same values as the margin-left property.
...on initial value0applies tosame as margininheritednopercentagesdepends on layout modelcomputed valueif specified as a length, the corresponding absolute length; if specified as a percentage, the specified value; otherwise, autoanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'margin-left'>{1,2} examples setting inline start and end margins html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; margin-inline: 20px 40px; background-color: #c8c800; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'margin-inline' in that specification.
mask-clip - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmask-clip
the mask-clip css property determines the area which is affected by a mask.
...svg, it applies to container elements excluding the defs element and all graphics elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax [ <geometry-box> | no-clip ]#where <geometry-box> = <shape-box> | fill-box | stroke-box | view-boxwhere <shape-box> = <box> | margin-boxwhere <box> = border-box | padding-box | content-box examples clipping a mask to the border box css #masked { width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: #8cffa0; margin: 20px; border: 20px solid #8ca0ff; padding: 20px; mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12668/mdn.svg); mask-size: 100% 100%; mask-clip: border-box; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } html <div id="masked"> </div> <select id="clipbox"> <option value="content-box">content-box</opti...
...box">stroke-box</option> <option value="view-box">view-box</option> <option value="no-clip">no-clip</option> </select> javascript var clipbox = document.getelementbyid("clipbox"); clipbox.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("masked").style.maskclip = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-clip' in that specification.
mask-composite - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the mask-composite css property represents a compositing operation used on the current mask layer with the mask layers below it.
... formal definition initial valueaddapplies toall elements; in svg, it applies to container elements excluding the defs element and all graphics elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <compositing-operator>#where <compositing-operator> = add | subtract | intersect | exclude examples compositing mask layers with addition css #masked { width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: #8cffa0; mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12668/mdn.svg), url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12676/star.svg); mask-size: 100% 100%; mask-composite: add; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } html <div id="masked"> </div> <select id="compositemode"> <option value="add">add</option> ...
...ct</option> <option value="intersect">intersect</option> <option value="exclude">exclude</option> </select> javascript var clipbox = document.getelementbyid("compositemode"); clipbox.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("masked").style.maskcomposite = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-composite' in that specification.
mask-image - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the mask-image css property sets the image that is used as mask layer for an element.
... <mask-source> a <url> reference to a <mask> or to a css image.
...gth>?<linear-color-hint> = <length-percentage><length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage><angular-color-stop> = <color> && <color-stop-angle>?<angular-color-hint> = <angle-percentage>where <color-stop-length> = <length-percentage>{1,2}<color-stop-angle> = <angle-percentage>{1,2}<angle-percentage> = <angle> | <percentage> examples setting a mask image with a url html <div id="masked"></div> css #masked { width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: #8cffa0; -webkit-mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12676/star.svg); mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12676/star.svg); } result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-image' in that specification.
mask-mode - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmask-mode
the mask-mode css property sets whether the mask reference defined by mask-image is treated as a luminance or alpha mask.
... formal definition initial valuematch-sourceapplies toall elements; in svg, it applies to container elements excluding the defs element and all graphics elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <masking-mode>#where <masking-mode> = alpha | luminance | match-source examples using alpha mask mode css #masked { width: 227px; height: 200px; background: blue linear-gradient(red, blue); mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12668/mdn.svg); mask-mode: alpha; /* can be changed in the live sample */ } html <div id="masked"> </div> <select id="maskmode"> <option value="alpha">alpha</option> <option value="luminance">luminance</option> <option value="match-source">mat...
...ch-source</option> </select> javascript var maskmode = document.getelementbyid("maskmode"); maskmode.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("masked").style.maskmode = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-mode' in that specification.
mask-position - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the mask-position css property sets the initial position, relative to the mask position layer set by mask-origin, for each defined mask image.
...| [ [ left | right ] <length-percentage> ] && [ [ top | bottom ] <length-percentage> ] ]where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting mask position css #wrapper { border: 1px solid black; width: 250px; height: 250px; } #masked { width: 250px; height: 250px; background: blue linear-gradient(red, blue); mask-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/12676/star.svg); mask-repeat: no-repeat; mask-position: top right; /* can be changed in the live sample */ margin-bottom: 10px; } html <div id="wrapper"> <div id="masked...
...on> <option value="10px 20px">10px 20px</option> <option value="60% 20%">60% 20%</option> </select> javascript var maskposition = document.getelementbyid("maskposition"); maskposition.addeventlistener("change", function (evt) { document.getelementbyid("masked").style.maskposition = evt.target.value; }); result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-position' in that specification.
mask-type - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmask-type
the mask-type css property sets whether an svg <mask> element is used as a luminance or an alpha mask.
...s setting an alpha mask html <div class="redsquare"></div> <svg version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" width="0" height="0"> <defs> <mask id="m" maskcontentunits="objectboundingbox" style="mask-type:alpha"> <rect x=".1" y=".1" width=".8" height=".8" fill="red" fill-opacity="0.7"/> </mask> </defs> </svg> css .redsquare { height: 100px; width: 100px; background-color: rgb(128, 128, 128); border: solid 1px black; mask: url("#m"); } result setting a luminance mask html <div class="redsquare"></div> <svg version="1.1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" width="0" height="0"> <defs> <mask id="m" maskcontentunits="objectboundingbox" ...
... style="mask-type:luminance"> <rect x=".1" y=".1" width=".8" height=".8" fill="red" fill-opacity="0.7"/> </mask> </defs> </svg> css .redsquare { height: 100px; width: 100px; background-color: rgb(128, 128, 128); border: solid 1px black; mask: url("#m"); mask-type:luminance; } result specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask-type' in that specification.
mask - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSmask
the mask css shorthand property hides an element (partially or fully) by masking or clipping the image at specific points.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: mask-clip mask-composite mask-image mask-mode mask-origin mask-position mask-repeat mask-size syntax /* keyword values */ mask: none; /* image values */ mask: url(mask.png); /* pixel image used as mask */ mask: url(masks.svg#star); /* element within svg graphic used as mask */ /* combined values */ mask: url(masks.svg#star) luminanc...
...r-hint> = <angle-percentage>where <color-stop-length> = <length-percentage>{1,2}<color-stop-angle> = <angle-percentage>{1,2}<angle-percentage> = <angle> | <percentage> examples masking an image .target { mask: url(#c1) luminance; } .anothertarget { mask: url(resources.svg#c1) 50px 30px/10px 10px repeat-x exclude; } specifications specification status comment css masking module level 1the definition of 'mask' in that specification.
mix-blend-mode - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the mix-blend-mode css property sets how an element's content should blend with the content of the element's parent and the element's background.
...nd-mode: exclusion; } .hue .item { mix-blend-mode: hue; } .saturation .item { mix-blend-mode: saturation; } .color .item { mix-blend-mode: color; } .luminosity .item { mix-blend-mode: luminosity; } using mix-blend-mode with html html <div class="isolate"> <div class="circle circle-1"></div> <div class="circle circle-2"></div> <div class="circle circle-3"></div> </div> css .circle { width: 80px; height: 80px; border-radius: 50%; mix-blend-mode: screen; position: absolute; } .circle-1 { background: red; } .circle-2 { background: lightgreen; left: 40px; } .circle-3 { background: blue; left: 20px; top: 40px; } .isolate { isolation: isolate; /* without isolation, the background color will be taken into account */ position: relative; } re...
...sult using mix-blend-mode with svg svg <svg> <g class="isolate"> <circle cx="40" cy="40" r="40" fill="red"/> <circle cx="80" cy="40" r="40" fill="lightgreen"/> <circle cx="60" cy="80" r="40" fill="blue"/> </g> </svg> css circle { mix-blend-mode: screen; } .isolate { isolation: isolate; } /* without isolation, the background color will be taken into account */ result specifications specification status comment compositing and blending level 1the definition of 'mix-blend-mode' in that specification.
offset-distance - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the offset-distance css property specifies a position along an offset-path for an element to be placed.
... formal definition initial value0applies totransformable elementsinheritednopercentagesrefer to the total path lengthcomputed valuefor <length> the absolute value, otherwise a percentageanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <length-percentage>where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples using offset-distance in an animation the motion aspect in css motion path typically comes from animating the offset-distance property.
... html <div id="motion-demo"></div> css #motion-demo { offset-path: path('m20,20 c20,100 200,0 200,100'); animation: move 3000ms infinite alternate ease-in-out; width: 40px; height: 40px; background: cyan; } @keyframes move { 0% { offset-distance: 0%; } 100% { offset-distance: 100%; } } result specifications specification status comment motion path module level 1the definition of 'offset-distance' in that specification.
offset - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSoffset
the offset css shorthand property sets all the properties required for animating an element along a defined path.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: offset-anchor offset-distance offset-path offset-position offset-rotate syntax /* offset position */ offset: auto; offset: 10px 30px; offset: none; /* offset path */ offset: ray(45deg closest-side); offset: path('m 100 100 l 300 100 l 200 300 z'); offset: url(arc.svg); /* offset path with distance and/or rotation */ offset: url(circle.svg) 100px; offset: url(circle.svg) 40%; offset: url(circle.svg) 30deg; offset: url(circle.svg) 50px 20deg; /* including offset anchor */ offset: ray(45deg closest-side) / 40px 20px; offset: url(arc.svg) 2cm / 0.5cm 3cm; offset: url(arc.svg) 30deg / 50px 100px; formal definition initial valueas ...
... examples animating an element along a path html <div id="offsetelement"></div> css @keyframes move { from { offset-distance: 0%; } to { offset-distance: 100%; } } #offsetelement { width: 50px; height: 50px; background-color: blue; offset: path("m 100 100 l 300 100 l 200 300 z") auto; animation: move 3s linear infinite; } result specifications specification status comment motion path module level 1the definition of 'offs...
orphans - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSorphans
the orphans css property sets the minimum number of lines in a block container that must be shown at the bottom of a page, region, or column.
...it has a little bit more text than the first one.</p> </div> css div { background-color: #8cffa0; height: 150px; columns: 3; orphans: 3; } p { background-color: #8ca0ff; } p:first-child { margin-top: 0; } result specifications specification status comment css fragmentation module level 3the definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'orphans' in that specification.
outline-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the outline-color css property sets the color of an element's outline.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples setting a solid blue outline html <p>my outline is blue, as you can see.</p> css p { outline: 2px solid; /* set the outline width and style */ outline-color: #0000ff; /* make the outline blue */ margin: 5px; } result specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 3the definition of 'outline-color' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'outline-color' in that specification.
outline-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css outline-width property sets the thickness of an element's outline.
...ngth; if the keyword none is specified, the computed value is 0animation typea length formal syntax <line-width>where <line-width> = <length> | thin | medium | thick examples setting an element's outline width html <span id="thin">thin</span> <span id="medium">medium</span> <span id="thick">thick</span> <span id="twopixels">2px</span> <span id="oneex">1ex</span> <span id="em">1.2em</span> css span { outline-style: solid; display: inline-block; margin: 20px; } #thin { outline-width: thin; } #medium { outline-width: medium; } #thick { outline-width: thick; } #twopixels { outline-width: 2px; } #oneex { outline-width: 1ex; } #em { outline-width: 1.2em; } result specifications specification status comment css basic user interface ...
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'outline-width' in that specification.
Guide to scroll anchoring - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
you can check whether disabling scroll anchoring fixes the issue in firefox by changing layout.css.scroll-anchoring.enabled to false in about:config.
... if it does, you can check what node is firefox using as the anchor using the layout.css.scroll-anchoring.highlight switch.
... in bug 1584285 the layout.css.scroll-anchoring.suppressions.enabled flag was added to firefox nightly in order to allow the disabling of these triggers further reading explainer document on the wicg site scroll anchoring for web developers on the chromium blog implement a pin-to-bottom scrolling element using scroll anchoring ...
overflow-block - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the overflow-block css property sets what shows when content overflows the block start and block end edges of a box.
... </div> </li> </ul> css #div1, #div2, #div3, #div4 { border: 1px solid black; width: 250px; height: 100px; } #div1 { overflow-block: hidden; margin-bottom: 120px;} #div2 { overflow-block: scroll; margin-bottom: 120px;} #div3 { overflow-block: visible; margin-bottom: 120px;} #div4 { overflow-block: auto; margin-bottom: 120px;} result specifications specification status comment ...
... css overflow module level 3the definition of 'overflow-block' in that specification.
overscroll-behavior-block - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the overscroll-behavior-block css property sets the browser's behavior when the block direction boundary of a scrolling area is reached.
... html <main> <div> <div> <p><code>overscroll-behavior-block</code> has been used to make it so that when the scroll boundaries of the yellow inner box are reached, the whole page does not begin to scroll.</p> </div> </div> </main> css main { height: 3000px; width: 500px; background-color: white; background-image: repeating-linear-gradient(to bottom, rgba(0,0,0,0) 0px, rgba(0,0,0,0) 19px, rgba(0,0,0,0.5) 20px); } main > div { height: 300px; width: 400px; overflow: auto; position: relative; top: 50px; left: 50px; overscroll-behavior-block: contain; } div > div { height: 1500px; width: 100%; backgro...
...und-color: yellow; background-image: repeating-linear-gradient(to bottom, rgba(0,0,0,0) 0px, rgba(0,0,0,0) 19px, rgba(0,0,0,0.5) 20px); } p { padding: 10px; background-color: rgba(255,0,0,0.5); margin: 0; width: 340px; position: relative; top: 10px; left: 10px; } result specifications specification status comment css overscroll behavior module level 1the definition of 'overscroll-behavior-block' in that specification.
overscroll-behavior-inline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the overscroll-behavior-inline css property sets the browser's behavior when the inline direction boundary of a scrolling area is reached.
... html <main> <div> <div> <p><code>overscroll-behavior-inline</code> has been used to make it so that when the scroll boundaries of the yellow inner box are reached, the whole page does not begin to scroll.</p> </div> </div> </main> css main { height: 400px; width: 3000px; background-color: white; background-image: repeating-linear-gradient(to right, rgba(0,0,0,0) 0px, rgba(0,0,0,0) 19px, rgba(0,0,0,0.5) 20px); } main > div { height: 300px; width: 400px; overflow: auto; position: relative; top: 50px; left: 50px; overscroll-behavior-inline: contain; } div > div { height: 100%; width: 1500px; backgro...
...und-color: yellow; background-image: repeating-linear-gradient(to right, rgba(0,0,0,0) 0px, rgba(0,0,0,0) 19px, rgba(0,0,0,0.5) 20px); } p { padding: 10px; background-color: rgba(255,0,0,0.5); margin: 0; width: 360px; position: relative; top: 10px; left: 10px; } result specifications specification status comment css overscroll behavior module level 1the definition of 'overscroll-behavior-inline' in that specification.
padding-block - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the padding-block css shorthand property defines the logical block start and end padding of an element, which maps to physical padding properties depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: padding-block-end padding-block-start syntax values the padding-block property takes the same values as the padding-left property.
... formal definition initial value0applies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueas <length>animation typediscrete formal syntax <'padding-left'>{1,2} examples setting block padding for vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; padding-block: 20px 40px; background-color: #c8c800; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'padding-block' in that specification.
padding-inline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the padding-inline css shorthand property defines the logical inline start and end padding of an element, which maps to physical padding properties depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... length */ padding-inline: 1em 2em; /* relative to the text size */ padding-inline: 10px; /* sets both start and end values */ /* <percentage> values */ padding-inline: 5% 2%; /* relative to the nearest block container's width */ /* global values */ padding-inline: inherit; padding-inline: initial; padding-inline: unset; constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: padding-inline-end padding-inline-start syntax values the padding-inline property takes the same values as the padding-left property.
... formal definition initial value0applies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueas <length>animation typediscrete formal syntax <'padding-left'>{1,2} examples setting inline padding for vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; padding-inline: 20px 40px; background-color: #c8c800; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'padding-inline' in that specification.
page-break-inside - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the page-break-inside css property adjusts page breaks inside the current element.
...it has a little bit more text than the third one.</p> </div> css .page { background-color: #8cffa0; height: 90px; width: 200px; columns: 1; column-width: 100px; } .list, ol, ul, p { break-inside: avoid; } p { background-color: #8ca0ff; } ol, ul, .list { margin: 0.5em 0; display: block; background-color: orange; } p:first-child { margin-top: 0; } result specifications specification status comment css p...
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'page-break-inside' in that specification.
perspective-origin - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the perspective-origin css property determines the position at which the viewer is looking.
... <figcaption><code>perspective-origin: 200% -200%;</code></figcaption> <div class="container"> <div class="cube po200200"> <div class="face front">1</div> <div class="face back">2</div> <div class="face right">3</div> <div class="face left">4</div> <div class="face top">5</div> <div class="face bottom">6</div> </div> </div> </figure> </section> css /* perspective-origin values (unique per example) */ .potl { perspective-origin: top left; } .potm { perspective-origin: top; } .potr { perspective-origin: top right; } .poml { perspective-origin: left; } .pomm { perspective-origin: 50% 50%; } .pomr { perspective-origin: right; } .pobl { perspective-origin: bottom left; } .pobm { perspective-origin: bottom; } .pobr { perspectiv...
... translatez(50px); } .bottom { background: rgba(196, 0, 196, 0.7); transform: rotatex(-90deg) translatez(50px); } /* make the layout a little nicer */ section { background-color: #eee; padding: 10px; font-family: sans-serif; text-align: left; display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(3, 1fr); } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'perspective-origin' in that specification.
place-items - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css place-items shorthand property allows you to align items along both the block and inline directions at once (i.e.
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: align-items justify-items syntax /* keyword values */ place-items: auto center; place-items: normal start; /* positional alignment */ place-items: center normal; place-items: start auto; place-items: end normal; place-items: self-start auto; place-items: self-end normal; place-items: flex-start auto; place-items: flex-end normal; place-items: left auto; place-items: right norm...
...option> </select> </div> javascript var values = document.getelementbyid('values'); var display = document.getelementbyid('display'); var container = document.getelementbyid('container'); values.addeventlistener('change', function (evt) { container.style.placeitems = evt.target.value; }); display.addeventlistener('change', function (evt) { container.classname = evt.target.value; }); css #container { height:200px; width: 240px; place-items: center; /* you can change this value by selecting another option in the list */ background-color: #8c8c8c; } .flex { display: flex; flex-wrap: wrap; } .grid { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(auto-fill, 50px); } result specifications specification status comment css box alignment...
pointer-events - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the pointer-events css property sets under what circumstances (if any) a particular graphic element can become the target of pointer events.
... html <ul> <li><a href="https://developer.mozilla.org">mdn</a></li> <li><a href="http://example.com">example.com</a></li> </ul> css a[href="http://example.com"] { pointer-events: none; } result specifications specification status comment scalable vector graphics (svg) 2the definition of 'pointer-events' in that specification.
... recommendation initial definition its extension to html elements, though present in early drafts of css basic user interface module level 3, has been pushed to its level 4.
radial-gradient() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the radial-gradient() css function creates an image consisting of a progressive transition between two or more colors that radiate from an origin.
...ight: 120px; } .radial-gradient { background-image: radial-gradient(cyan 0%, transparent 20%, salmon 40%); } non-centered gradient <div class="radial-gradient"></div> .radial-gradient { width: 240px; height: 120px; } .radial-gradient { background-image: radial-gradient(farthest-corner at 40px 40px, #f35 0%, #43e 100%); } more radial-gradient examples please see using css gradients for more examples.
... specifications specification status comment css images module level 3the definition of 'radial-gradients()' in that specification.
repeat() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSrepeat
the repeat() css function represents a repeated fragment of the track list, allowing a large number of columns or rows that exhibit a recurring pattern to be written in a more compact form.
... this function can be used in the css grid properties grid-template-columns and grid-template-rows.
... </div> </div> css #container { display: grid; grid-template-columns: repeat(2, 50px 1fr) 100px; grid-gap: 5px; box-sizing: border-box; height: 200px; width: 100%; background-color: #8cffa0; padding: 10px; } #container > div { background-color: #8ca0ff; padding: 5px; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'repeat(...
repeating-radial-gradient() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the repeating-radial-gradient() css function creates an image consisting of repeating gradients that radiate from an origin.
... note: please see using css gradients for more examples.
... specifications specification status comment css images module level 3the definition of 'repeating-radial-gradient()' in that specification.
rotate - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSrotate
the rotate css property allows you to specify rotation transforms individually and independently of the transform property.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies totransformable elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typea transformcreates stacking contextyes formal syntax none | <angle> | [ x | y | z | <number>{3} ] && <angle> examples rotate an element on hover html <div> <p class="rotate">rotation</p> </div> css * { box-sizing: border-box; } html { font-family: sans-serif; } div { width: 150px; margin: 0 auto; } p { padding: 10px 5px; border: 3px solid black; border-radius: 20px; width: 150px; font-size: 1.2rem; text-align: center; } .rotate { transition: rotate 1s; } div:hover .rotate { rotate: 1 -0.5 1 180deg; } result specifications specification statu...
...s comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'individual transforms' in that specification.
ruby-align - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ruby-align css property defines the distribution of the different ruby elements over the base.
... initial valuespace-aroundapplies toruby bases, ruby annotations, ruby base containers, ruby annotation containersinheritedyescomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax start | center | space-between | space-around examples ruby aligned at the start of the base text html <ruby> <rb>this is a long text to check</rb> <rp>(</rp><rt>short ruby</rt><rp>)</rp> </ruby> css ruby { ruby-align: start; } result ruby aligned at the center of the base text html <ruby> <rb>this is a long text to check</rb> <rp>(</rp><rt>short ruby</rt><rp>)</rp> </ruby> css ruby { ruby-align: center; } result extra space distributed between ruby elements html <ruby> <rb>this is a long text to check</rb> <rp>(</rp><rt>short ruby</rt><rp>)</rp> </ruby> ...
...css ruby { ruby-align: space-between; } result extra space distributed between and around ruby elements html <ruby> <rb>this is a long text to check</rb> <rp>(</rp><rt>short ruby</rt><rp>)</rp> </ruby> css ruby { ruby-align: space-around; } result specifications specification status comment css ruby layout module level 1the definition of 'ruby-align' in that specification.
scale - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSscale
the scale css property allows you to specify scale transforms individually and independently of the transform property.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies totransformable elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typea transformcreates stacking contextyes formal syntax none | <number>{1,3} examples scaling an element on hover html <div> <p class="scale">scaling</p> </div> css * { box-sizing: border-box; } html { font-family: sans-serif; } div { width: 150px; margin: 0 auto; } p { padding: 10px 5px; border: 3px solid black; border-radius: 20px; width: 150px; font-size: 1.2rem; text-align: center; } .scale { transition: scale 1s; } div:hover .scale { scale: 2 0.7; } result specifications specification status comment ...
... css transforms level 2the definition of 'individual transforms' in that specification.
scroll-behavior - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the scroll-behavior css property sets the behavior for a scrolling box when scrolling is triggered by the navigation or cssom scrolling apis.
...sinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax auto | smooth examples setting smooth scroll behavior html <nav> <a href="#page-1">1</a> <a href="#page-2">2</a> <a href="#page-3">3</a> </nav> <scroll-container> <scroll-page id="page-1">1</scroll-page> <scroll-page id="page-2">2</scroll-page> <scroll-page id="page-3">3</scroll-page> </scroll-container> css a { display: inline-block; width: 50px; text-decoration: none; } nav, scroll-container { display: block; margin: 0 auto; text-align: center; } nav { width: 339px; padding: 5px; border: 1px solid black; } scroll-container { display: block; width: 350px; height: 200px; overflow-y: scroll; scroll-behavior: smooth; } scroll-page { display: flex; align-items: center; ...
... justify-content: center; height: 100%; font-size: 5em; } result specifications specification status comment css object model (cssom) view modulethe definition of 'scroll-behavior' in that specification.
scroll-margin-inline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: scroll-margin-inline-end scroll-margin-inline-start syntax /* <length> values */ scroll-margin-inline: 10px; scroll-margin-inline: 1em .5em ; /* global values */ scroll-margin-inline: inherit; scroll-margin-inline: initial; scroll-margin-inline: unset; values <length> an outset from the corresponding edge of the scroll container.
... html the html that represents the blocks is very simple: <div class="scroller"> <div>1</div> <div>2</div> <div>3</div> <div>4</div> </div> css let's walk through the css.
... result try it for yourself: specifications specification status comment css scroll snap module level 1the definition of 'scroll-margin-inline' in that specification.
scroll-margin - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: scroll-margin-bottom scroll-margin-left scroll-margin-right scroll-margin-top syntax /* <length> values */ scroll-margin: 10px; scroll-margin: 1em .5em 1em 1em; /* global values */ scroll-margin: inherit; scroll-margin: initial; scroll-margin: unset; values <length> an outset from the corresponding edge of the scroll container.
... html the html that represents the blocks is very simple: <div class="scroller"> <div>1</div> <div>2</div> <div>3</div> <div>4</div> </div> css let's walk through the css.
... result try it for yourself: specifications specification status comment css scroll snap module level 1the definition of 'scroll-margin' in that specification.
scroll-snap-stop - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the scroll-snap-stop css property defines whether the scroll container is allowed to "pass over" possible snap positions.
... css /* setup */ :root, body { height: 100%; display: flex; align-items: center; justify-content: space-between; flex-flow: column nowrap; font-family: monospace; } .container { display: flex; overflow: auto; outline: 1px dashed lightgray; flex: none; } .container.x { width: 100%; height: 128px; flex-flow: row nowrap; } .container.y { width: 256px; height: 256px; fle...
...rtl</div> <div>2</div> <div>3</div> <div>4</div> <div>5</div> </div> result specifications specification status comment css scroll snap module level 1the definition of 'scroll-snap-stop' in that specification.
scroll-snap-type - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the scroll-snap-type css property sets how strictly snap points are enforced on the scroll container in case there is one.
...rtl</div> <div>2</div> <div>3</div> <div>4</div> <div>5</div> </div> </div> css /* setup */ html, body, .holster { height: 100%; } .holster { display: flex; align-items: center; justify-content: space-between; flex-flow: column nowrap; font-family: monospace; } .container { display: flex; overflow: auto; outline: 1px dashed lightgray; flex: none; } .container.x { width: 100%; height: 128px; flex-flow: row nowrap; } .container.y { width: 256px;...
...eight: 256px; font-size: 128px; width: 256px; height: 100%; } /* appearance fixes */ .y.container > div:first-child { line-height: 1.3; font-size: 64px; } /* coloration */ .container > div:nth-child(even) { background-color: #87ea87; } .container > div:nth-child(odd) { background-color: #87ccea; } results specifications specification status comment css scroll snap module level 1the definition of 'scroll-snap-type' in that specification.
scrollbar-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the scrollbar-color css property sets the color of the scrollbar track and thumb.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples coloring overflow scrollbars css .scroller { width: 300px; height: 100px; overflow-y: scroll; scrollbar-color: rebeccapurple green; } html <div class="scroller">veggies es bonus vobis, proinde vos postulo essum magis kohlrabi welsh onion daikon amaranth tatsoi tomatillo melon azuki bean garlic.
...dandelion cucumber earthnut pea peanut soko zucchini.</div> result specifications specification status comment css scrollbars level 1the definition of 'scrollbar-color' in that specification.
<shape> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSshape
the <shape> css data type defines the specific form (shape) of a region.
... example img.clip04 { clip: rect(10px, 20px, 20px, 10px); } specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of '<shape>' in that specification.
... see also related css property: clip the -moz-image-rect() function has similar coordinate values to rect().
text-decoration-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-decoration-color css property sets the color of decorations added to text by text-decoration-line.
... css does not provide a direct mechanism for specifying a unique color for each line type.
...ntage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples <p>this paragraph has <s>some erroneous text</s> inside it that i want to call attention to.</p> p { text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-color: cyan; } s { text-decoration-line: line-through; text-decoration-color: red; text-decoration-style: wavy; } specifications specification status comment css text decoration module level 3the definition of 'text-decoration-color' in that specification.
text-decoration-line - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-decoration-line css property sets the kind of decoration that is used on text in an element, such as an underline or overline.
...this value is deprecated in favor of css animations.
...g-error | grammar-error examples <p class="wavy">here's some text with wavy red underline!</p> <p class="both">this text has lines both above and below it.</p> .wavy { text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-style: wavy; text-decoration-color: red; } .both { text-decoration-line: underline overline; } specifications specification status comment css text decoration module level 3the definition of 'text-decoration-line' in that specification.
text-decoration-thickness - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-decoration-thickness css property sets the stroke thickness of the decoration line that is used on text in an element, such as a line-through, underline, or overline.
...ritednopercentagesrefer to the font size of the element itselfcomputed valueas specifiedanimation typeby computed value type formal syntax auto | from-font | <length> | <percentage> examples varying thickness html <p class="thin">here's some text with a 1px red underline.</p> <p class="thick">this one has a 5px red underline.</p> <p class="shorthand">this uses the equivalent shorthand.</p> css .thin { text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-style: solid; text-decoration-color: red; text-decoration-thickness: 1px; } .thick { text-decoration-line: underline; text-decoration-style: solid; text-decoration-color: red; text-decoration-thickness: 5px; } .shorthand { text-decoration: underline solid red 5px; } results specifications specification ...
...status comment css text decoration module level 4the definition of 'text-decoration-width' in that specification.
text-emphasis - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-emphasis css property applies emphasis marks to text (except spaces and control characters).
... constituent properties this property is a shorthand for the following css properties: text-emphasis-color text-emphasis-style syntax /* initial value */ text-emphasis: none; /* no emphasis marks */ /* <string> value */ text-emphasis: 'x'; text-emphasis: '点'; text-emphasis: '\25b2'; text-emphasis: '*' #555; text-emphasis: 'foo'; /* should not use.
... css h2 { text-emphasis: triangle #d55; } html <h2>this is important!</h2> result specifications specification status comment css text decoration module level 3the definition of 'text-emphasis' in that specification.
text-size-adjust - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-size-adjust css property controls the text inflation algorithm used on some smartphones and tablets.
...this value is used to cancel a none value previously set with css.
...iscrete formal syntax none | auto | <percentage> examples basic disabling usage as hinted at above, on a properly designed responsive site the text-size-adjust behavior is not needed, so developers can elect to turn it off by specifying a vlaue of none: p { -webkit-text-size-adjust: none; text-size-adjust: none; } specifications specification status comment css mobile text size adjustment module level 1the definition of 'text-size-adjust' in that specification.
text-underline-position - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the text-underline-position css property specifies the position of the underline which is set using the text-decoration property's underline value.
...aliquam accumsan tellus ac erat posuere.</p> our css looks like this: p { font-size: 1.5rem; text-transform: capitalize; text-decoration: underline; text-decoration-thickness: 2px; } .horizontal { text-underline-position: under; } .vertical { writing-mode: vertical-rl; text-underline-position: left; } in this example we set both the paragraphs to have a thick underline.
... :root { text-underline-position: under; } specifications specification status comment css text decoration module level 3the definition of 'text-underline-position' in that specification.
<time-percentage> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <time-percentage> css data type represents a value that can be either a <time> or a <percentage>.
... specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of '<time-percentage>' in that specification.
... editor's draft css values and units module level 3the definition of '<time-percentage>' in that specification.
top - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSStop
the top css property participates in specifying the vertical position of a positioned element.
..., percentage or calc(); formal syntax <length> | <percentage> | auto examples body { background: beige; } div { position: absolute; top: 10%; right: 40%; bottom: 20%; left: 15%; background: gold; border: 1px solid blue; } <div>the size of this content is determined by the position of its edges.</div> specifications specification status comment css positioned layout module level 3the definition of 'top' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'top' in that specification.
transform-box - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the transform-box css property defines the layout box to which the transform and transform-origin properties relate.
...m-origin scoping in this example we have an svg: <svg id="svg" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 50 50"> <g> <circle id="center" fill="red" r="1" transform="translate(25 25)" /> <circle id="boxcenter" fill="blue" r=".5" transform="translate(15 15)" /> <rect id="box" x="10" y="10" width="10" height="10" rx="1" ry="1" stroke="black" fill="none" /> </g> </svg> in the css we have an animation that uses a transform to rotate the rectangle infinitely.
... specifications specification status comment css transforms level 1the definition of 'transform-box' in that specification.
perspective() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the perspective() css function defines a transformation that sets the distance between the user and the z=0 plane, the perspective from which the viewer would be if the 2-dimensional interface were 3-dimensional.
...p">b</div> <div class="face left">c</div> </div> <p>with perspective (9cm):</p> <div class="perspective-box-far"> <div class="face front">a</div> <div class="face top">b</div> <div class="face left">c</div> </div> <p>with perspective (4cm):</p> <div class="perspective-box-closer"> <div class="face front">a</div> <div class="face top">b</div> <div class="face left">c</div> </div> css .face { position: absolute; width: 100px; height: 100px; line-height: 100px; font-size: 100px; text-align: center; } p + div { width: 100px; height: 100px; transform-style: preserve-3d; margin-left: 100px; } .no-perspective-box { transform: rotatex(-15deg) rotatey(30deg); } .perspective-box-far { transform: perspective(9cm) rotatex(-15deg) rotatey(30deg); } .perspectiv...
...perspective(4cm) rotatex(-15deg) rotatey(30deg); } .top { background-color: skyblue; transform: rotatex(90deg) translate3d(0, 0, 50px); } .left { background-color: pink; transform: rotatey(-90deg) translate3d(0, 0, 50px); } .front { background-color: limegreen; transform: translate3d(0, 0, 50px); } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'perspective()' in that specification.
rotate() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the rotate() css function defines a transformation that rotates an element around a fixed point on the 2d plane, without deforming it.
...ogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2 cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3 cos(a)-sin(a) sin(a)cos(a) cos(a)-sin(a)0sin(a)cos(a)0001 cos(a)-sin(a)0sin(a)cos(a)0001 cos(a)-sin(a)00sin(a)cos(a)0000100001 [cos(a) sin(a) -sin(a) cos(a) 0 0] examples basic example html <div>normal</div> <div class="rotated">rotated</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .rotated { transform: rotate(45deg); /* equal to rotatez(45deg) */ background-color: pink; } result combining rotation with another transformation if you want apply multiple transformations to an element, be careful about the order in which you specify your transformations.
... html <div>normal</div> <div class="rotate">rotated</div> <div class="rotate-translate">rotated + translated</div> <div class="translate-rotate">translated + rotated</div> css div { position: absolute; left: 40px; top: 40px; width: 100px; height: 100px; background-color: lightgray; } .rotate { background-color: transparent; outline: 2px dashed; transform: rotate(45deg); } .rotate-translate { background-color: pink; transform: rotate(45deg) translatex(180px); } .translate-rotate { background-color: gold; transform: translatex(180px) rotate(45deg); } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 1the ...
rotateX() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the rotatex() css function defines a transformation that rotates an element around the abscissa (horizontal axis) without deforming it.
... the axis of rotation passes through an origin, defined by the transform-origin css property.
... 1000cos(a)-sin(a)0sin(a)cos(a) 10000cos(a)-sin(a)00sin(a)cos(a)00001 examples html <div>normal</div> <div class="rotated">rotated</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .rotated { transform: rotatex(45deg); background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'rotatex()' in that specification.
rotateY() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the rotatey() css function defines a transformation that rotates an element around the ordinate (vertical axis) without deforming it.
... the axis of rotation passes through an origin, defined by the transform-origin css property.
... cos(a)0sin(a)010-sin(a)0cos(a) cos(a)0sin(a)00100-sin(a)0cos(a)00001 examples html <div>normal</div> <div class="rotated">rotated</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .rotated { transform: rotatey(60deg); background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'rotatey()' in that specification.
rotateZ() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the rotatez() css function defines a transformation that rotates an element around the z-axis without deforming it.
... the axis of rotation passes through an origin, defined by the transform-origin css property.
... cos(a)-sin(a)0sin(a)cos(a)0001 cos(a)-sin(a)00 sin(a)cos(a)00 0010 0001 examples html <div>normal</div> <div class="rotated">rotated</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .rotated { transform: rotatez(45deg); background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'rotatez()' in that specification.
scale() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the scale() css function defines a transformation that resizes an element on the 2d plane.
... find out more: mdn understanding wcag, guideline 2.3 explanations understanding success criterion 2.3.3 | w3c understanding wcag 2.1 examples scaling the x and y dimensions together html <div>normal</div> <div class="scaled">scaled</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .scaled { transform: scale(0.7); /* equal to scalex(0.7) scaley(0.7) */ background-color: pink; } result scaling x and y dimensions separately, and translating the origin html <div>normal</div> <div class="scaled">scaled</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .scaled { tran...
...sform: scale(2, 0.5); /* equal to scalex(2) scaley(0.5) */ transform-origin: left; background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 1the definition of 'scale()' in that specification.
scale3d() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the scale3d() css function defines a transformation that resizes an element in 3d space.
... sx000sy000sz sx0000sy0000sz00001 examples without changing the origin html <div>normal</div> <div class="scaled">scaled</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .scaled { transform: perspective(500px) scale3d(2, 0.7, 0.2) translatez(100px); background-color: pink; } result translating the origin of the transformation html <div>normal</div> <div class="scaled">scaled</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .scaled { transform: perspe...
...ctive(500px) scale3d(2, 0.7, 0.2) translatez(100px); transform-origin: left; background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'scale3d()' in that specification.
scaleZ() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the scalez() css function defines a transformation that resizes an element along the z-axis.
... 10001000s 1000010000s00001 examples html <div>normal</div> <div class="perspective">translated</div> <div class="scaled-translated">scaled</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .perspective { /* includes a perspective to create a 3d space */ transform: perspective(400px) translatez(-100px); background-color: limegreen; } .scaled-translated { /* includes a perspective to create a 3d space */ transform: perspective(400px) scalez(2) translatez(-100px); background-color: pink; } result s...
...pecifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'scalez()' in that specification.
skew() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the skew() css function defines a transformation that skews an element on the 2d plane.
... cartesian coordinates on ℝ2 homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ2 cartesian coordinates on ℝ3 homogeneous coordinates on ℝℙ3 1tan(ax)tan(ay)1 1tan(ax)0tan(ay)10001 1tan(ax)0tan(ay)10001 1tan(ax)00tan(ay)10000100001 [1 tan(ay) tan(ax) 1 0 0] examples using a single x-angle html <div>normal</div> <div class="skewed">skewed</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .skewed { transform: skew(10deg); /* equal to skewx(10deg) */ background-color: pink; } result using two angles html <div>normal</div> <div class="skewed">skewed</div> css div { width: 80px; height: 80px; background-color: skyblue; } .skewed { transform: skew(10deg, 10deg); background-color: pink; } re...
...sult specifications specification status comment css transforms level 1the definition of 'skew()' in that specification.
translate() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the translate() css function repositions an element in the horizontal and/or vertical directions.
... 10tx01ty001 10tx01ty001 100tx010ty00100001 [1 0 0 1 tx ty] formal syntax translate(<length-percentage> , <length-percentage>?) examples using a single-axis translation html <div>static</div> <div class="moved">moved</div> <div>static</div> css div { width: 60px; height: 60px; background-color: skyblue; } .moved { transform: translate(10px); /* equal to: translatex(10px) or translate(10px, 0) */ background-color: pink; } result combining y-axis and x-axis translation html <div>static</div> <div class="moved">moved</div> <div>static</div> css div { width: 60px; height: 60px; background-color: skyblue; } .moved...
... { transform: translate(10px, 10px); background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 1the definition of 'translate()' in that specification.
translate3d() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the translate3d() css function repositions an element in 3d space.
... 100tx010ty001tz0001 examples using a single axis translation html <div>static</div> <div class="moved">moved</div> <div>static</div> css div { width: 60px; height: 60px; background-color: skyblue; } .moved { /* equivalent to perspective(500px) translatex(10px) */ transform: perspective(500px) translate3d(10px, 0, 0px); background-color: pink; } result combining z-axis and x-axis translation html <div>static</div> <div class="moved">moved</div> <div>static</div> css div { width: 60px; height: 60px; back...
...ground-color: skyblue; } .moved { transform: perspective(500px) translate3d(10px, 0, 100px); background-color: pink; } result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'translate3d()' in that specification.
transform-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the transform-style css property sets whether children of an element are positioned in the 3d space or are flattened in the plane of the element.
... html <section id="example-element"> <div class="face front">1</div> <div class="face back">2</div> <div class="face right">3</div> <div class="face left">4</div> <div class="face top">5</div> <div class="face bottom">6</div> </section> <div class="checkbox"> <label for="preserve"><code>preserve-3d</code></label> <input type="checkbox" id="preserve" checked> </div> css #example-element { margin: 50px; width: 100px; height: 100px; transform-style: preserve-3d; transform: rotate3d(1, 1, 1, 30deg); } .face { display: flex; align-items: center; justify-content: center; width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute; backface-visibility: inherit; font-size: 60px; color: #fff; } .front { background: rgba(90,90,90,.7); transform: ...
...nslatez(50px); } javascript const cube = document.getelementbyid('example-element'); const checkbox = document.getelementbyid('preserve'); checkbox.addeventlistener('change', () => { if(checkbox.checked) { cube.style.transformstyle = 'preserve-3d'; } else { cube.style.transformstyle = 'flat'; } }) result specifications specification status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'transform-style' in that specification.
transition-delay - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the transition-delay css property specifies the duration to wait before starting a property's transition effect when its value changes.
...in both cases, the css declaration remains valid.
...ition-timing-function: ease-in-out; } function updatetransition() { var el = document.queryselector("div.box"); if (el) { el.classname = "box1"; } else { el = document.queryselector("div.box1"); el.classname = "box"; } return el; } var intervalid = window.setinterval(updatetransition, 7000); specifications specification status comment css transitionsthe definition of 'transition-delay' in that specification.
transition-duration - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the transition-duration css property sets the length of time a transition animation should take to complete.
...in both case the css declaration stays valid.
...ition-timing-function: ease-in-out; } function updatetransition() { var el = document.queryselector("div.box"); if (el) { el.classname = "box1"; } else { el = document.queryselector("div.box1"); el.classname = "box"; } return el; } var intervalid = window.setinterval(updatetransition, 7000); specifications specification status comment css transitionsthe definition of 'transition-duration' in that specification.
transition-property - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the transition-property css property sets the css properties to which a transition effect should be applied.
... formal definition initial valueallapplies toall elements, ::before and ::after pseudo-elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax none | <single-transition-property>#where <single-transition-property> = all | <custom-ident> examples there are several examples of css transitions included in the main css transitions article.
... specifications specification status comment css transitionsthe definition of 'transition-property' in that specification.
translate - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSStranslate
the translate css property allows you to specify translation transforms individually and independently of the transform property.
...]?where <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples html <div> <p class="translate">translation</p> </div> css * { box-sizing: border-box; } html { font-family: sans-serif; } div { width: 150px; margin: 0 auto; } p { padding: 10px 5px; border: 3px solid black; border-radius: 20px; width: 150px; font-size: 1.2rem; text-align: center; } .translate { transition: translate 1s; } div:hover .translate { translate: 200px 50px; } result specifications specification ...
...status comment css transforms level 2the definition of 'individual transforms' in that specification.
unicode-bidi - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the unicode-bidi css property, together with the direction property, determines how bidirectional text in a document is handled.
... formal definition initial valuenormalapplies toall elements, though some values have no effect on non-inline elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax normal | embed | isolate | bidi-override | isolate-override | plaintext examples css .bible-quote { direction: rtl; unicode-bidi: embed; } html <div class="bible-quote"> a line of text </div> <div> another line of text </div> result specifications specification status comment css writing modes module level 3the definition of 'unicode-bidi' in that specification.
... css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'unicode-bidi' in that specification.
user-select - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the user-select css property controls whether the user can select text.
... note: css ui 4 renames user-select: element to contain.
... formal definition initial valueautoapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax auto | text | none | contain | all examples html <p>you should be able to select this text.</p> <p class="unselectable">hey, you can't select this text!</p> <p class="all">clicking once will select all of this text.</p> css .unselectable { -moz-user-select: none; -webkit-user-select: none; -ms-user-select: none; user-select: none; } .all { -moz-user-select: all; -webkit-user-select: all; -ms-user-select: all; user-select: all; } result specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 4the definition of 'user-select' in that specification.
var() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSvar
the var() css function can be used to insert the value of a custom property (sometimes called a "css variable") instead of any part of a value of another property.
...custom properties are solely for use by authors and users; css will never give them a meaning beyond what is presented here.
...); } /* fallback */ /* in the component’s style: */ .component .header { color: var(--header-color, blue); /* header-color isn’t set, and so remains blue, the fallback value */ } .component .text { color: var(--text-color, black); } /* in the larger application’s style: */ .component { --text-color: #080; } specifications specification status comment css custom properties for cascading variables module level 1the definition of 'var()' in that specification.
vertical-align - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the vertical-align css property sets vertical alignment of an inline, inline-block or table-cell box.
...width="32" height="32" /> image with a text-top alignment.</div> <div>an <img class="bottom" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/b4/e1f0faff5b.svg" alt="link" width="32" height="32" /> image with a text-bottom alignment.</div> <div>an <img class="middle" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/b4/e1f0faff5b.svg" alt="link" width="32" height="32" /> image with a middle alignment.</div> css img.top { vertical-align: text-top; } img.bottom { vertical-align: text-bottom; } img.middle { vertical-align: middle; } result specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'vertical-align' in that specification.
... css level 1the definition of 'vertical-align' in that specification.
will-change - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the will-change css property hints to browsers how an element is expected to change.
...chrome currently takes two actions, given particular css property idents: establish a new compositing layer or a new stacking context.
...deventlistener('mouseenter', hintbrowser); el.addeventlistener('animationend', removehint); function hintbrowser() { // the optimizable properties that are going to change // in the animation's keyframes block this.style.willchange = 'transform, opacity'; } function removehint() { this.style.willchange = 'auto'; } specifications specification status comment css will change module level 1the definition of 'will-change' in that specification.
z-index - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSz-index
the z-index css property sets the z-order of a positioned element and its descendants or flex items.
... formal definition initial valueautoapplies topositioned elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typean integercreates stacking contextyes formal syntax auto | <integer> examples visually layering elements html <div class="dashed-box">dashed box <span class="gold-box">gold box</span> <span class="green-box">green box</span> </div> css .dashed-box { position: relative; z-index: 1; border: dashed; height: 8em; margin-bottom: 1em; margin-top: 2em; } .gold-box { position: absolute; z-index: 3; /* put .gold-box above .green-box and .dashed-box */ background: gold; width: 80%; left: 60px; top: 3em; } .green-box { position: absolute; z-index: 2; /* put .green-box above .dashed-box */ background: lightgr...
...een; width: 20%; left: 65%; top: -25px; height: 7em; opacity: 0.9; } result specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'z-index' in that specification.
CSS pixel - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms
the css pixel—denoted in css with the suffix px—is a unit of length which roughly corresponds to the width or height of a single dot that can be comfortably seen by the human eye without strain, but is otherwise as small as possible.
... learn more technical reference css values and units module, section 5.2: absolute lengths learn about it css length explained on the mdn hacks blog ...
Property (CSS) - MDN Web Docs Glossary: Definitions of Web-related terms
a css property is a characteristic (like color) whose associated value defines one aspect of how the browser should display the element.
... here's an example of a css rule: /* "div" is a selector indicating that all the div elements */ /* in the document will be styled by that rule */ div { /* the property "color" with the value "black" indicates */ /* that the text will have the color black */ color: black; /* the property "background-color" with the value "white" indicates */ /* that the background color of the elements will be white */ background-color: white; } learn more general knowledge learn css technical reference the css reference on mdn the css working group current work ...
Animation inspector example: CSS transitions - Firefox Developer Tools
firefox-logo-animation example animation using css transitions.
... html content <div class="channel"> <img src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/e6/a96484b5c3.png" class="icon"/> <span class="note">firefox developer edition</span> </div> css content .channel { padding: 2em; margin: 0.5em; box-shadow: 1px 1px 5px #808080; margin: 1.5em; } .channel > * { vertical-align: middle; line-height: normal; } .icon { width: 50px; height: 50px; filter: grayscale(100%); transition: transform 750ms ease-in, filter 750ms ease-in-out; } .note { margin-left: 1em; font: 1.5em "open sans",arial,sans-serif; overflow: hidden; white-space: nowrap; display: inline-block; opacity: 0; width: 0; transition: opacity 500ms 150ms, width 500ms 150ms; } .icon#selected { filter: grayscale(0%); transform: scale(1.5); } .icon#select...
CSSPseudoElement.type - Web APIs
the type read-only property of the csspseudoelement interface returns the type of the pseudo-element as a string, represented in the form of a css selector.
... syntax var typeofpseudoelement = csspseudoelement.type; value a cssomstring containing one of the following values: "::before" "::after" "::marker" examples the example below demonstrates the relationship between csspseudoelement.type and element.pseudo(): const myelement = document.queryselector('q'); const myselector = '::after'; const csspseudoelement = myelement.pseudo(myselector); const typeofpseudoelement = csspseudoelement.type; console.log(myselector === typeofpseudoelement); // outputs true specifications specification status comment css pseudo-elements level 4the definition of 'type' in that specification.
CSSStyleRule.style - Web APIs
the cssrule.style property is the cssstyledeclaration interface for the declaration block of the cssrule.
... syntax styleobj = cssrule.style example function stilo() { alert(document.stylesheets[0].cssrules[0].style.csstext); } // displays "background-color: gray;" notes the declaration block is that part of the style rule that appears within the braces and that actually provides the style definitions (for the selector, the part that comes before the braces).
CSS Font Loading API - Web APIs
the css font loading api provides events and interfaces for dynamically loading font resources.
... specifications specification status comment css font loading module level 3 working draft initial definition.
-moz-float-edge - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the non-standard -moz-float-edge css property specifies whether the height and width properties of the element include the margin, border, or padding thickness.
... formal definition initial valuecontent-boxapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax border-box | content-box | margin-box | padding-box examples html <div class="box"> <p>lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit.</p> </div> css .box { display: block; height: 5px; margin: 0.5em auto 0.5em auto; color: gray; -moz-float-edge: margin-box; box-sizing: border-box; } result specifications not part of any standard.
-moz-force-broken-image-icon - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -moz-force-broken-image-icon extended css property can be used to force the broken image icon to be shown even when a broken image has an alt attribute.
... formal definition initial value0applies toimagesinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <integer> examples html <img src='/broken/image/link.png' alt='broken image link'> css img { -moz-force-broken-image-icon: 1; height: 100px; width: 100px; } result screenshotlive sample note: unless the image has a specified height and width the broken image icon will not be displayed but the alt attribute will also be hidden if -moz-force-broken-image-icon is set to 1.
-moz-orient - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -moz-orient css property specifies the orientation of the element to which it's applied.
...t on <input type="range"> or other elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax inline | block | horizontal | vertical examples html <p> the following progress meter is horizontal (the default): </p> <progress max="100" value="75"></progress> <p> the following progress meter is vertical: </p> <progress class="vert" max="100" value="75"></progress> css .vert { -moz-orient: vertical; width: 16px; height: 150px; } result specifications not part of any standard.
-moz-user-input - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
note: -moz-user-input was one of the proposals leading to the proposed css 3 user-input property, which has not yet reached candidate recommendation (call for implementations).
... a similar property, user-focus, was proposed in early drafts of a predecessor of the css3 ui specification, but was rejected by the working group.
-webkit-border-before - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-border-before css property is a shorthand property for setting the individual logical block start border property values in a single place in the style sheet.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples applying a border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; -webkit-border-before: 5px dashed blue; } result specifications not part of any standard, but it relates to the standards-track border-block-start property.
-webkit-print-color-adjust - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-print-color-adjust property is a non-standard css extension that can be used to force printing of background colors and images in browsers based on the webkit engine.
... examples forcing white-on-black printing article { -webkit-print-color-adjust: exact; background: #222; color: #eee; } specifications not part of any standard, though there is a proposal in the csswg wiki to standardize it.
-webkit-text-security - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
-webkit-text-security is a non-standard css property that obfuscates characters in a <form> field (such as <input> or <textarea>) by replacing them with a shape.
... html <label for="name">name:</label> <input type="text" name="name" id="name" /> css input { -webkit-text-security: square; } result specifications not part of any standard.
-webkit-touch-callout - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the -webkit-touch-callout css property controls the display of the default callout shown when you touch and hold a touch target.
...apple has a description in the safari css reference.
:-moz-broken - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-broken css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that matches elements representing broken image links.
...:-("> css :-moz-broken { background: bisque; padding: 8px; } result specifications not part of any standard.
:-moz-drag-over - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-drag-over css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that matches an element when a dragover event is called on it.
... syntax :-moz-drag-over examples html <table border="1"> <tr> <td width="100px" height="100px">drag over</td> </tr> </table> css td:-moz-drag-over { color: red; } result specifications not part of any standard.
:-moz-first-node - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-first-node css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that represents any element that is the first child node of some other element.
... syntax :-moz-first-node examples css span:-moz-first-node { background-color: lime; } html <p> <span>this matches!</span> <span>this doesn't match.</span> </p> <p> blahblah.
:-moz-focusring - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-focusring css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that is similar to the :focus pseudo-class, but it only matches an element if it's currently focused and a focus ring or other indicator should be drawn around it.
... syntax :-moz-focusring examples html <input /> css input { margin: 5px; } :-moz-focusring { color: red; outline: 2px dotted green; } result specifications not part of any standard.
:-moz-last-node - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-last-node css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that represents any element that is the last child node of some other element.
... syntax :-moz-last-node examples css span:-moz-last-node { background-color: lime; } html <p> <span>this does not match.</span> <span>this matches!</span> </p> <p> <span>this doesn't match because it's followed by text.</span> blahblah.
::-moz-list-bullet - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-list-bullet css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents the marker (typically a bullet) of a list item (<li>) in an unordered list (<ul>).
... syntax li::-moz-list-bullet examples html <ul> <li>item 1</li> <li>item 2</li> <li>item 3</li> </ul> css ::-moz-list-bullet { color: red; font-size: 1.5em; } result specifications not part of any standard.
::-moz-list-number - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-list-number css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents the marker (typically a number) of a list item (<li>) in an ordered list (<ol>).
... syntax li::-moz-list-number examples html <ol> <li>first item</li> <li>second item</li> <li>third item</li> </ol> css li::-moz-list-number { font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; } result screenshotlive sample specifications not part of any standard.
:-moz-locale-dir(ltr) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-locale-dir(ltr) css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that matches an element if the user interface is being displayed left-to-right.
... html <p>if you're using a left-to-right interface, this should be red.</p> css p:-moz-locale-dir(ltr) { color: red; } result specifications not part of any standard.
:-moz-locale-dir(rtl) - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-locale-dir(rtl) css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that matches an element if the user interface is being displayed right-to-left.
... html <p>if you're using a right-to-left interface, this should be red.</p> css p:-moz-locale-dir(rtl) { color: red; } result specifications not part of any standard.
:-moz-only-whitespace - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-only-whitespace css pseudo-class matches elements that only contains text nodes that only contain whitespace.
... examples html <div> </div> css :root { overflow: hidden; max-width: 100vw; max-height: 100vh; } div { background-color: #ccc; box-sizing: border-box; height: 100vh; min-height: 16px; min-height: 1rem; } div { border: 4px solid red; } :-moz-only-whitespace { border-color: lime; } result specifications briefly defined as :blank in selectors level 4, but then the functionality was merged into :empty and :blank redefined to mean empty <input>.
:-moz-window-inactive - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :-moz-window-inactive css pseudo-class is a mozilla extension that matches any element while it's in an inactive window.
... html <div id="mybox"> <p>this is a box!</p> </div> css #mybox { background: linear-gradient(to bottom, yellow, cyan); width: 200px; height: 200px; } #mybox:-moz-window-inactive { background: cyan; } result the result of this code is shown below.
::-moz-color-swatch - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-color-swatch css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents the color selected in an <input> of type="color".
... examples html <input type="color" value="#de2020" /> css input[type=color]::-moz-color-swatch { border-radius: 10px; border-style: none; } result specifications not part of any standard.
::-moz-focus-inner - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-focus-inner css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents an inner focus ring of the <button> element as well as the button, submit, reset, and color types of the <input> element.
... examples html <input type="submit" value="input"/> <button type="submit">button</button> css button::-moz-focus-inner, input[type="color"]::-moz-focus-inner, input[type="reset"]::-moz-focus-inner, input[type="button"]::-moz-focus-inner, input[type="submit"]::-moz-focus-inner { padding-block-start: 0px; padding-inline-end: 2px; padding-block-end: 0px; padding-inline-start: 2px; border: 1px dotted red; } result specifications not part of any standard.
::-moz-progress-bar - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-progress-bar css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents the progress bar inside a <progress> element.
... syntax ::-moz-progress-bar examples html <progress value="30" max="100">30%</progress> <progress max="100">indeterminate</progress> css ::-moz-progress-bar { background-color: red; } /* force indeterminate bars to have zero width */ :indeterminate::-moz-progress-bar { width: 0; } result specifications not part of any standard.
::-moz-range-progress - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-range-progress css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents the lower portion of the track (i.e., groove) in which the indicator slides in an <input> of type="range".
... syntax ::-moz-range-progress examples html <input type="range" min="0" max="100" step="5" value="50"/> css input[type=range]::-moz-range-progress { background-color: green; height: 1em; } result a progress bar using this style might look something like this: specifications not part of any standard.
::-moz-range-thumb - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-range-thumb css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents the thumb (i.e., virtual knob) of an <input> of type="range".
... syntax ::-moz-range-thumb examples html <input type="range" min="0" max="100" step="5" value="50"/> css input[type=range]::-moz-range-thumb { background-color: green; } result a progress bar using this style might look something like this: specifications not part of any standard.
::-moz-range-track - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-moz-range-track css pseudo-element is a mozilla extension that represents the track (i.e., groove) in which the indicator slides in an <input> of type="range".
... syntax ::-moz-range-track examples html <input type="range" min="0" max="100" step="5" value="50"/> css input[type=range]::-moz-range-track { background-color: green; } result a progress bar using this style might look something like this: specifications not part of any standard.
::-webkit-file-upload-button - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-file-upload-button css pseudo-element represents the button of an <input> of type="file".
... syntax selector::-webkit-file-upload-button examples html <form> <label for="fileupload">upload file</label><br> <input type="file" id="fileupload"> </form> css input, label { display: block; } input[type=file]::-webkit-file-upload-button { border: 1px solid grey; background: #fffaaa; } below is the example for you to try.
::-webkit-meter-bar - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-meter-bar css pseudo-class is a webkit extension that represents the meter bar in a <meter> element.
... examples html <meter min="0" max="10" value="6">score out of 10</meter> css meter { /* reset the default appearance */ -webkit-appearance: none; -moz-appearance: none; appearance: none; } meter::-webkit-meter-bar { background: #eee; box-shadow: 0 2px 3px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) inset; border-radius: 3px; } result ...
::-webkit-meter-inner-element - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
::-webkit-meter-inner-element is a proprietary webkit css pseudo-element for selecting and applying styles to to the outer containing element of a <meter> element.
... html <meter min="0" max="10" value="6">score out of 10</meter> css meter { /* reset the default appearance */ -webkit-appearance: none; -moz-appearance: none; appearance: none; } meter::-webkit-meter-inner-element { -webkit-appearance: inherit; box-sizing: inherit; border: 1px solid #aaa; } result ...
::-webkit-meter-optimum-value - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-meter-optimum-value css pseudo-element styles the <meter> element when its value is inside the low-high range.
... html <meter min="0" max="10" value="6">score out of 10</meter> css meter::-webkit-meter-bar { /* required to get rid of the default background property */ background : none; background-color : whitesmoke; box-shadow : 0 5px 5px -5px #333 inset; } meter::-webkit-meter-optimum-value { box-shadow: 0 5px 5px -5px #999 inset; } result ...
::-webkit-outer-spin-button - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-outer-spin-button css pseudo-element is used to style the outer part of the spinner button of number picker <input> elements.
... html <input type="number"> css input::-webkit-outer-spin-button { -webkit-appearance: none; } result specifications not part of any standard.
::-webkit-progress-bar - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-progress-bar css pseudo-element represents the entire bar of a <progress> element.
... syntax ::-webkit-progress-bar examples css content progress { -webkit-appearance: none; } ::-webkit-progress-bar { background-color: orange; } html content <progress value="10" max="50"> result result screenshot if you're not using a webkit or blink browser, the code above results in a progress bar that looks like this: specifications not part of any standard.
::-webkit-progress-inner-element - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-progress-inner-element css pseudo-element represents the outermost container of the <progress> element.
... html <progress value="10" max="50"> css progress { -webkit-appearance: none; } ::-webkit-progress-inner-element { border: 2px solid black; } result result screenshot if you're not using a blink or webkit browsear, the above code resuls in a progress bar looking like this: specifications not part of any standard.
::-webkit-progress-value - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-progress-value css pseudo-element represents the filled-in portion of the bar of a <progress> element.
... html <progress value="10" max="50"> css progress { -webkit-appearance: none; } ::-webkit-progress-value { background-color: orange; } result result screenshot a progress bar using the style above would look like this: specifications not part of any standard.
::-webkit-scrollbar - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::-webkit-scrollbar css pseudo-element affects the style of the scrollbar of an element.
... css scrollbar selectors you can use the following pseudo elements to customize various parts of the scrollbar for webkit browsers: ::-webkit-scrollbar — the entire scrollbar.
::backdrop - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::backdrop css pseudo-element is a box the size of the viewport which is rendered immediately beneath any element being presented in full-screen mode.
...normally that area is black, but its appearance has been altered by the css above.
::cue-region - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the ::cue-region css pseudo-element matches webvtt cues within a selected element.
... syntax ::cue-region | ::cue-region( <selector> ) permitted properties rules whose selectors include this element may only use the following css properties: background background-attachment background-clip background-color background-image background-origin background-position background-repeat background-size color font font-family font-size font-stretch font-style font-variant font-weight line-height opacity outline outline-color outline-style outline-width ruby-position text-combine-upright text-decoration ...
::part() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS::part
the ::part css pseudo-element represents any element within a shadow tree that has a matching part attribute.
... custom-element::part(foo) { /* styles to apply to the `foo` part */ } syntax ::part( <ident>+ ) examples html <template id="tabbed-custom-element"> <style type="text/css"> *, ::before, ::after { box-sizing: border-box; padding: 1rem; } :host { display: flex; } </style> <div part="tab active">tab 1</div> <div part="tab">tab 2</div> <div part="tab">tab 3</div> </template> <tabbed-custom-element></tabbed-custom-element> css tabbed-custom-element::part(tab) { color: #0c0c0dcc; border-bottom: transparent solid 2px; } tabbed-custom-element::part(tab):hover { background-color: #0c0c0d19; border-color: #0c0c0d33; } tabbed-custom-element::part(tab):hover:active { background-color: #0c0c0d33; } tabbed-custom-element::part(tab):focus { box-shadow: 0 0 0 1px #0a84ff ...
:any-link - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:any-link
the :any-link css pseudo-class selector represents an element that acts as the source anchor of a hyperlink, independent of whether it has been visited.
... /* selects any element that would be matched by :link or :visited */ :any-link { color: green; } syntax :any-link examples html <a href="https://example.com">external link</a><br> <a href="#">internal target link</a><br> <a>placeholder link (won't get styled)</a> css a:any-link { border: 1px solid blue; color: orange; } /* webkit browsers */ a:-webkit-any-link { border: 1px solid blue; color: orange; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':any-link' in that specification.
:default - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:default
the :default css pseudo-class selects form elements that are the default in a group of related elements.
... <legend>favorite season</legend> <input type="radio" name="season" id="spring"> <label for="spring">spring</label> <input type="radio" name="season" id="summer" checked> <label for="summer">summer</label> <input type="radio" name="season" id="fall"> <label for="fall">fall</label> <input type="radio" name="season" id="winter"> <label for="winter">winter</label> </fieldset> css input:default { box-shadow: 0 0 2px 1px coral; } input:default + label { color: coral; } result specifications specification status comment html living standardthe definition of ':default' in that specification.
:defined - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:defined
the :defined css pseudo-class represents any element that has been defined.
... let divelem = document.createelement('div'); divelem.textcontent = this.getattribute('text'); let shadowroot = this.attachshadow({mode: 'open'}) .appendchild(divelem); } }) then insert a copy of this element into the document, along with a standard <p>: <simple-custom text="custom element example text"></simple-custom> <p>standard paragraph example text</p> in the css we first include the following rules: // give the two elements distinctive backgrounds p { background: yellow; } simple-custom { background: cyan; } // both the custom and the built-in element are given italic text :defined { font-style: italic; } then provide the following two rules to hide any instances of our custom element that are not defined, and display instances that are defined...
:disabled - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:disabled
the :disabled css pseudo-class represents any disabled element.
...eldset> <br> <fieldset id="billing"> <legend>billing address</legend> <label for="billing-checkbox">same as shipping address:</label> <input type="checkbox" id="billing-checkbox" checked> <br> <input type="text" placeholder="name" disabled> <input type="text" placeholder="address" disabled> <input type="text" placeholder="zip code" disabled> </fieldset> </form> css input[type="text"]:disabled { background: #ccc; } javascript // wait for the page to finish loading document.addeventlistener('domcontentloaded', function () { // attach `change` event listener to checkbox document.getelementbyid('billing-checkbox').onchange = togglebilling; }, false); function togglebilling() { // select the billing text fields var billingitems = document.querysel...
:enabled - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:enabled
the :enabled css pseudo-class represents any enabled element.
... html <form action="url_of_form"> <label for="firstfield">first field (enabled):</label> <input type="text" id="firstfield" value="lorem"><br> <label for="secondfield">second field (disabled):</label> <input type="text" id="secondfield" value="ipsum" disabled="disabled"><br> <input type="button" value="submit"> </form> css input:enabled { color: #2b2; } input:disabled { color: #aaa; } result specifications specification status comment html living standardthe definition of ':enabled' in that specification.
:focus-within - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :focus-within css pseudo-class represents an element that has received focus or contains an element that has received focus.
... html <p>try typing into this form.</p> <form> <label for="given_name">given name:</label> <input id="given_name" type="text"> <br> <label for="family_name">family name:</label> <input id="family_name" type="text"> </form> css form { border: 1px solid; color: gray; padding: 4px; } form:focus-within { background: #ff8; color: black; } input { margin: 4px; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':focus-within' in that specification.
:has() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:has
the :has() css pseudo-class represents an element if any of the selectors passed as parameters (relative to the :scope of the given element) match at least one element.
...in earlier revisions of the css selectors level 4 specification, :has had a limitation that it couldn't be used within stylesheets.
:in-range - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:in-range
the :in-range css pseudo-class represents an <input> element whose current value is within the range limits specified by the min and max attributes.
... <li> <input id="value1" name="value1" type="number" placeholder="1 to 10" min="1" max="10" value="12"> <label for="value1">your value is </label> </li> </ul> </form> css li { list-style: none; margin-bottom: 1em; } input { border: 1px solid black; } input:in-range { background-color: rgba(0, 255, 0, 0.25); } input:out-of-range { background-color: rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.25); border: 2px solid red; } input:in-range + label::after { content: 'okay.'; } input:out-of-range + label::after { content: 'out of range!'; } result specifications ...
:indeterminate - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :indeterminate css pseudo-class represents any form element whose state is indeterminate, such as checkboxes which have their html indeterminate attribute set to true, radio buttons which are members of a group in which all radio buttons are unchecked, and indeterminate <progress> elements.
... html <div> <input type="checkbox" id="checkbox"> <label for="checkbox">this label starts out lime.</label> </div> <div> <input type="radio" id="radio"> <label for="radio">this label starts out lime.</label> </div> css input:indeterminate + label { background: lime; } javascript var inputs = document.getelementsbytagname("input"); for (var i = 0; i < inputs.length; i++) { inputs[i].indeterminate = true; } progress bar html <progress> css progress { margin: 4px; } progress:indeterminate { opacity: 0.5; background-color: lightgray; box-shadow: 0 0 2px 1px red; } result specificatio...
:invalid - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:invalid
the :invalid css pseudo-class represents any <input> or other <form> element whose contents fail to validate.
... html <form> <div class="field"> <label for="url_input">enter a url:</label> <input type="url" id="url_input"> </div> <div class="field"> <label for="email_input">enter an email address:</label> <input type="email" id="email_input" required> </div> </form> css label { display: block; margin: 1px; padding: 1px; } .field { margin: 1px; padding: 1px; } input:invalid { background-color: #ffdddd; } form:invalid { border: 5px solid #ffdddd; } input:valid { background-color: #ddffdd; } form:valid { border: 5px solid #ddffdd; } input:required { border-color: #800000; border-width: 3px; } input:required:invalid { border-color: #c...
:last-child - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :last-child css pseudo-class represents the last element among a group of sibling elements.
... syntax :last-child examples basic example html <div> <p>this text isn't selected.</p> <p>this text is selected!</p> </div> <div> <p>this text isn't selected.</p> <h2>this text isn't selected: it's not a `p`.</h2> </div> css p:last-child { color: lime; background-color: black; padding: 5px; } result styling a list html <ul> <li>item 1</li> <li>item 2</li> <li>item 3 <ul> <li>item 3.1</li> <li>item 3.2</li> <li>item 3.3</li> </ul> </li> </ul> css ul li { color: blue; } ul li:last-child { border: 1px solid red; color: red; } result specifications sp...
:not() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:not
the :not() css pseudo-class represents elements that do not match a list of selectors.
... examples html <p>i am a paragraph.</p> <p class="fancy">i am so very fancy!</p> <div>i am not a paragraph.</div> css .fancy { text-shadow: 2px 2px 3px gold; } /* <p> elements that are not in the class `.fancy` */ p:not(.fancy) { color: green; } /* elements that are not <p> elements */ body :not(p) { text-decoration: underline; } /* elements that are not <div> and not <span> elements */ body :not(div):not(span) { font-weight: bold; } /* elements that are not `.crazy` or `.fancy` */ /* note that this...
:nth-child() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :nth-child() css pseudo-class matches elements based on their position in a group of siblings.
...the <code>&lt;em&gt;</code> is completely skipped over and ignored.</p> <div class="third"> <span>span!</span> <span>span</span> <em>this is an `em`.</em> <span>span!</span> <span>span</span> <span>span!</span> <span>span</span> <span>span!</span> </div> css html { font-family: sans-serif; } span, div em { padding: 5px; border: 1px solid green; display: inline-block; margin-bottom: 3px; } .first span:nth-child(2n+1), .second span:nth-child(2n+1), .third span:nth-of-type(2n+1) { background-color: lime; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':nth-child' in...
:nth-last-of-type() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :nth-last-of-type() css pseudo-class matches elements of a given type, based on their position among a group of siblings, counting from the end.
... formal syntax :nth-last-of-type( <nth> )where <nth> = <an-plus-b> | even | odd examples html <div> <span>this is a span.</span> <span>this is another span.</span> <em>this is emphasized.</em> <span>wow, this span gets limed!!!</span> <strike>this is struck through.</strike> <span>here is one last span.</span> </div> css span:nth-last-of-type(2) { background-color: lime; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':nth-last-of-type' in that specification.
:nth-of-type() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :nth-of-type() css pseudo-class matches elements of a given type (tag name), based on their position among a group of siblings.
... formal syntax :nth-of-type( <nth> )where <nth> = <an-plus-b> | even | odd examples basic example html <div> <div>this element isn't counted.</div> <p>1st paragraph.</p> <p>2nd paragraph.</p> <div>this element isn't counted.</div> <p>3rd paragraph.</p> <p class="fancy">4th paragraph.</p> </div> css /* odd paragraphs */ p:nth-of-type(2n+1) { color: red; } /* even paragraphs */ p:nth-of-type(2n) { color: blue; } /* first paragraph */ p:nth-of-type(1) { font-weight: bold; } /* this has no effect, as the .fancy class is only on the 4th p element, not the 1st */ p.fancy:nth-of-type(1) { text-decoration: underline; } result specifications specification status comm...
:only-of-type - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :only-of-type css pseudo-class represents an element that has no siblings of the same type.
... <i>i am the only `i` child.</i> <em>i am `em` #1.</em> <em>i am `em` #2.</em> </div> </main> css main :only-of-type { color: red; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':only-of-type' in that specification.
:out-of-range - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the :out-of-range css pseudo-class represents an <input> element whose current value is outside the range limits specified by the min and max attributes.
...the absence of such a limitation, the element can neither be "in-range" nor "out-of-range." syntax :out-of-range examples html <form action="" id="form1"> <p>values between 1 and 10 are valid.</p> <ul> <li> <input id="value1" name="value1" type="number" placeholder="1 to 10" min="1" max="10" value="12"> <label for="value1">your value is </label> </li> </ul> </form> css li { list-style: none; margin-bottom: 1em; } input { border: 1px solid black; } input:in-range { background-color: rgba(0, 255, 0, 0.25); } input:out-of-range { background-color: rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.25); border: 2px solid red; } input:in-range + label::after { content: 'okay.'; } input:out-of-range + label::after { content: 'out of range!'; } result specifications ...
:root - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:root
the :root css pseudo-class matches the root element of a tree representing the document.
... /* selects the root element of the document: <html> in the case of html */ :root { background: yellow; } syntax :root examples declaring global css variables :root can be useful for declaring global css variables: :root { --main-color: hotpink; --pane-padding: 5px 42px; } specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of ':root' in that specification.
:valid - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS:valid
the :valid css pseudo-class represents any <input> or other <form> element whose contents validate successfully.
... :valid examples indicating valid and invalid form fields in this example, we use structures like this, which include extra <span>s to generate content on; we'll use these to provide indicators of valid/invalid data: <div> <label for="fname">first name *: </label> <input id="fname" name="fname" type="text" required> <span></span> </div> to provide these indicators, we use the following css: input + span { position: relative; } input + span::before { position: absolute; right: -20px; top: 5px; } input:invalid { border: 2px solid red; } input:invalid + span::before { content: '✖'; color: red; } input:valid + span::before { content: '✓'; color: green; } we set the <span>s to position: relative so that we can position the generated content relative to them.
speak-as - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
let's talk about speech css | css tricks formal definition related at-rule@counter-styleinitial valueautocomputed valueas specified formal syntax auto | bullets | numbers | words | spell-out | <counter-style-name>where <counter-style-name> = <custom-ident> examples setting the spoken form for a counter html <ul class="list"> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> <li>three</li> <li>four</li> <li>five</li> </ul> css ...
...@counter-style speak-as-example { system: fixed; symbols:     ; suffix: " "; speak-as: numbers; } .list { list-style: speak-as-example; } result specifications specification status comment css counter styles level 3the definition of 'speak-as' in that specification.
symbols - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the symbols css descriptor is used to specify the symbols that the specified counter system will use to construct counter representations.
...ngth> | <percentage><angular-color-stop> = <color> && <color-stop-angle>?<angular-color-hint> = <angle-percentage>where <color-stop-length> = <length-percentage>{1,2}<color-stop-angle> = <angle-percentage>{1,2}<angle-percentage> = <angle> | <percentage> examples setting counter symbols html <ul class="list"> <li>one</li> <li>two</li> <li>three</li> <li>four</li> <li>five</li> </ul> css @counter-style symbols-example { system: fixed; symbols: a "1" "\24b7" d e; } .list { list-style: symbols-example; } result specifications specification status comment css counter styles level 3the definition of 'symbols' in that specification.
font-family - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-family css descriptor allows authors to specify the font family for the font specified in an @font-face rule.
... formal definition related at-rule@font-faceinitial valuen/a (required)computed valueas specified formal syntax <family-name>where <family-name> = <string> | <custom-ident>+ examples setting the font family name @font-face { font-family: examplefont; src: url('examplefont.ttf'); } specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-family' in that specification.
font-variation-settings - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variation-settings css descriptor allows authors to specify low-level opentype or truetype font variations in the @font-face rule.
... valueas specified formal syntax normal | [ <string> <number> ]# examples setting font weight and stretch in a @font-face rule @font-face { font-family: 'opentypefont'; src: url('open_type_font.woff2') format('woff2'); font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; font-variation-settings: 'wght' 400, 'wdth' 300; } specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 4the definition of 'font-variation-settings' in that specification.
any-hover - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediaany-hover
the any-hover css media feature can be used to test whether any available input mechanism can hover over elements.
... examples testing whether input methods can hover html <a href="#">try hovering over me!</a> css @media (any-hover: hover) { a:hover { background: yellow; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'any-hover' in that specification.
any-pointer - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the any-pointer css media feature tests whether the user has any pointing device (such as a mouse), and if so, how accurate it is.
... html <input id="test" type="checkbox" /> <label for="test">look at me!</label> css input[type="checkbox"]:checked { background: gray; } @media (any-pointer: fine) { input[type="checkbox"] { -moz-appearance: none; -webkit-appearance: none; appearance: none; width: 15px; height: 15px; border: 1px solid blue; } } @media (any-pointer: coarse) { input[type="checkbox"] { -moz-appearance: none; -webkit-appearance: none; appearance: none; ...
color-gamut - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the color-gamut css media feature can be used to test the approximate range of colors that are supported by the user agent and the output device.
... examples html <p>this is a test.</p> css @media (color-gamut: srgb) { p { background: #f4ae8a; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'color-gamut' in that specification.
device-height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the device-height css media feature can be used to test the height of an output device's rendering surface.
... <link rel="stylesheet" media="screen and (max-device-height: 799px)" href="http://foo.bar.com/short-styles.css" /> specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'device-height' in that specification.
device-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the device-width css media feature can be used to test the width of an output device's rendering surface.
... <link rel="stylesheet" media="screen and (max-device-width: 799px)" href="http://foo.bar.com/narrow-styles.css" /> specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'device-width' in that specification.
grid - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediagrid
the grid css media feature can be used to test whether the output device uses a grid-based screen.
...neato!</p> css :not(.unknown) { color: lightgray; } @media (grid: 0) { .unknown { color: lightgray; } .bitmap { color: red; text-transform: uppercase; } } @media (grid: 1) { .unknown { color: lightgray; } .grid { color: black; text-transform: uppercase; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the ...
height - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediaheight
the height css media feature can be used to apply styles based on the height of the viewport (or the page box, for paged media).
... examples html <div>watch this element as you resize your viewport's height.</div> css /* exact height */ @media (height: 360px) { div { color: red; } } /* minimum height */ @media (min-height: 25rem) { div { background: yellow; } } /* maximum height */ @media (max-height: 40rem) { div { border: 2px solid blue; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'height' in that specification.
hover - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediahover
the hover css media feature can be used to test whether the user's primary input mechanism can hover over elements.
... examples html <a href="#">try hovering over me!</a> css @media (hover: hover) { a:hover { background: yellow; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'hover' in that specification.
inverted-colors - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the inverted-colors css media feature can be used to test whether the user agent or underlying os is inverting colors.
...if you're not, it should be red on light gray.</p> <p>if the text is gray, your browser doesn't support the `inverted-colors` media feature.</p> css p { color: gray; } @media (inverted-colors: inverted) { p { background: black; color: yellow; } } @media (inverted-colors: none) { p { background: #eee; color: red; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 5the definition of 'inverted-colors' in that specification.
monochrome - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediamonochrome
the monochrome css media feature can be used to test the number of bits per pixel in the monochrome frame buffer of the output device.
... examples html <p class="mono">your device supports monochrome pixels!</p> <p class="no-mono">your device doesn't support monochrome pixels.</p> css p { display: none; } /* any monochrome device */ @media (monochrome) { p.mono { display: block; color: #333; } } /* any non-monochrome device */ @media (monochrome: 0) { p.no-mono { display: block; color: #ee3636; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'monochrome' in that specific...
orientation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the orientation css media feature can be used to test the orientation of the viewport (or the page box, for paged media).
... examples html <div>box 1</div> <div>box 2</div> <div>box 3</div> css body { display: flex; } div { background: yellow; } @media (orientation: landscape) { body { flex-direction: row; } } @media (orientation: portrait) { body { flex-direction: column; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'orientation' in that specification.
overflow-block - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the overflow-block css media feature can be used to test how the output device handles content that overflows the initial containing block along the block axis.
...sed nec augue congue eros accumsan tincidunt sed eget ex.</p> css @media (overflow-block: scroll) { p { color: red; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'overflow-block' in that specification.
overflow-inline - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the overflow-inline css media feature can be used to test how the output device handles content that overflows the initial containing block along the inline axis.
...sed nec augue congue eros accumsan tincidunt sed eget ex.</p> css p { white-space: nowrap; } @media (overflow-inline: scroll) { p { color: red; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'overflow-inline' in that specification.
pointer - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediapointer
the pointer css media feature tests whether the user has a pointing device (such as a mouse), and if so, how accurate the primary pointing device is.
... html <input id="test" type="checkbox" /> <label for="test">look at me!</label> css input[type="checkbox"] { -moz-appearance: none; -webkit-appearance: none; appearance: none; border: solid; margin: 0; } input[type="checkbox"]:checked { background: gray; } @media (pointer: fine) { input[type="checkbox"] { width: 15px; height: 15px; border-width: 1px; border-color: blue; } } @media (pointer: coarse) { input[type="checkbox"] { width: 30px;...
prefers-color-scheme - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
(any other value causes firefox to return light.) the prefers-color-scheme css media feature is used to detect if the user has requested the system use a light or dark color theme.
... html <div class="day">day (initial)</div> <div class="day light-scheme">day (changes in light scheme)</div> <div class="day dark-scheme">day (changes in dark scheme)</div> <br> <div class="night">night (initial)</div> <div class="night light-scheme">night (changes in light scheme)</div> <div class="night dark-scheme">night (changes in dark scheme)</div> css .day { background: #eee; color: black; } .night { background: #333; color: white; } @media (prefers-color-scheme: dark) { .day.dark-scheme { background: #333; color: white; } .night.dark-scheme { background: black; color: #ddd; } } @media (prefers-color-scheme: light) { .day.light-scheme { background: white; color: #555; } .night.light-scheme { background: #eee; color: black;...
prefers-contrast - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the prefers-contrast css media feature is used to detect if the user has requested that the web content is presented with a higher (or lower) contrast.
... html <div class="contrast">low contrast box</div> css .contrast { width: 100px; height: 100px; outline: 2px dashed black; } @media (prefers-contrast: high) { .contrast { outline: 2px solid black; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 5the definition of 'prefers-contrast' in that specification.
prefers-reduced-data - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the prefers-reduced-data css media feature is used to detect if the user has requested the web content that consumes less internet traffic.
... in this example the montserrat-regular.woff2 font file will neither be preloaded nor downloaded if the user prefers reduced data, in this case the "system font stack" will serve as the fallback font: html <head> <link rel="preload" href="fonts/montserrat-regular.woff2" as="font" media="(prefers-reduced-data: no-preference)" crossorigin> <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css"> </head> css @media (prefers-reduced-data: no-preference) { @font-face { font-family: montserrat; font-style: normal; font-weight: 400; font-display: swap; /* latin */ src: local('montserrat regular'), local('montserrat-regular'), url('fonts/montserrat-regular.woff2') format('woff2'); unicode-range: u+0000-00ff, u+0131, u+0152-0153, ...
prefers-reduced-motion - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the prefers-reduced-motion css media feature is used to detect if the user has requested that the system minimize the amount of non-essential motion it uses.
... html <div class="animation">animated box</div> css .animation { animation: pulse 1s linear infinite both; } /* tone down the animation to avoid vestibular motion triggers like scaling or panning large objects.
prefers-reduced-transparency - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the prefers-reduced-transparency css media feature is used to detect if the user has requested that the system minimize the amount of transparency used across elements.
... html <div class="transparency">transparent box</div> css .transparency { opacity: 0.5; } @media (prefers-reduced-transparency: reduce) { .transparency { opacity: 1; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 5the definition of 'prefers-reduced-transparency' in that specification.
resolution - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediaresolution
the resolution css media feature can be used to test the pixel density of the output device.
... examples html <p>this is a test of your device's pixel density.</p> css /* exact resolution */ @media (resolution: 150dpi) { p { color: red; } } /* minimum resolution */ @media (min-resolution: 72dpi) { p { text-decoration: underline; } } /* maximum resolution */ @media (max-resolution: 300dpi) { p { background: yellow; } } result specifications specification status comment media queriesthe definition of 'resolution' in that specification.
scan - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediascan
the scan css media feature can be used to test the scanning process (if any) utilized by the output device.
...if your screen uses progressive scanning, you should see a serif font.</p> css p { font-family: cursive; } @media (scan: interlace) { p { font-family: sans-serif; } } @media (scan: progressive) { p { font-family: serif; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'scan' in that specification.
scripting - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediascripting
the scripting css media feature can be used to test whether scripting (such as javascript) is available.
...:-)</p> css p { color: lightgray; } @media (scripting: none) { .script-none { color: red; } } @media (scripting: initial-only) { .script-initial-only { color: red; } } @media (scripting: enabled) { .script-enabled { color: red; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 5the definition of 'scripting' in that speci...
width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@mediawidth
the width css media feature can be used to test the width of the viewport (or the page box, for paged media).
... examples html <div>watch this element as you resize your viewport's width.</div> css /* exact width */ @media (width: 360px) { div { color: red; } } /* minimum width */ @media (min-width: 35rem) { div { background: yellow; } } /* maximum width */ @media (max-width: 50rem) { div { border: 2px solid blue; } } result specifications specification status comment media queries level 4the definition of 'width' in that specification.
bleed - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@pagebleed
the bleed css at-rule descriptor, used with the @page at-rule, specifies the extent of the page bleed area outside the page box.
... formal definition related at-rule@pageinitial valueautocomputed valueas specified formal syntax auto | <length> examples setting a page bleed of 1cm @page { bleed: 1cm; } specifications specification status comment css paged media module level 3the definition of 'bleed' in that specification.
size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@pagesize
the size css at-rule descriptor, used with the @page at-rule, defines the size and orientation of the box which is used to represent a page.
...valueas specified, but with relative lengths converted into absolute lengths formal syntax <length>{1,2} | auto | [ <page-size> | [ portrait | landscape ] ] examples specifying size and orientation @page { size: 4in 6in landscape; } nesting inside a @media rule @media print { @page { size: 50mm 150mm; } } specifications specification status comment css paged media module level 3the definition of 'size' in that specification.
max-zoom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the max-zoom css descriptor sets the maximum zoom factor of a document defined by the @viewport at-rule.
... formal definition related at-rule@viewportinitial valueautopercentagesthe zoom factor itselfcomputed valueauto, or a non-negative number or percentage as specified formal syntax auto | <number> | <percentage> examples setting max-zoom @viewport { max-zoom: 1.5; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"max-zoom" descriptor' in that specification.
min-zoom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the min-zoom css descriptor sets the minimum zoom factor of a document defined by the @viewport at-rule.
... formal definition related at-rule@viewportinitial valueautopercentagesthe zoom factor itselfcomputed valueauto, or a non-negative number or percentage as specified formal syntax auto | <number> | <percentage> examples setting min zoom factor @viewport { min-zoom: 2.0; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"min-zoom" descriptor' in that specification.
orientation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the orientation css descriptor controls the orientation of a document defined by @viewport.
... formal definition related at-rule@viewportinitial valueautopercentagesrefer to the size of bounding boxcomputed valueas specified formal syntax auto | portrait | landscape examples setting viewport orientation @viewport { orientation: landscape; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"orientation" descriptor' in that specification.
user-zoom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the user-zoom css descriptor controls whether or not the user can change the zoom factor of a document defined by @viewport.
...wcag, guideline 1.4 explanations understanding success criterion 1.4.4 | understanding wcag 2.0 formal definition related at-rule@viewportinitial valuezoompercentagesrefer to the size of bounding boxcomputed valueas specified formal syntax zoom | fixed examples disabling user zoom @viewport { user-zoom: fixed; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"user-zoom" descriptor' in that specification.
zoom - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSS@viewportzoom
the zoom css descriptor sets the initial zoom factor of a document defined by the @viewport at-rule.
... formal definition related at-rule@viewportinitial valueautopercentagesthe zoom factor itselfcomputed valueauto, or a non-negative number or percentage as specified formal syntax auto | <number> | <percentage> examples setting viewport zoom factor @viewport { zoom: 2.0; } specifications specification status comment css device adaptationthe definition of '"zoom" descriptor' in that specification.
Adjacent sibling combinator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
/* paragraphs that come immediately after any image */ img + p { font-weight: bold; } syntax former_element + target_element { style properties } examples css li:first-of-type + li { color: red; } html <ul> <li>one</li> <li>two!</li> <li>three</li> </ul> result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of 'next-sibling combinator' in that specification.
... recommendation css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'adjacent sibling selectors' in that specification.
Border-radius generator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this tool can be used to generate css3 border-radius effects.
...</div> <div class="ui-checkbox" data-topic='top-right'></div> <div class="ui-checkbox" data-topic='bottom-right'></div> <div class="ui-checkbox" data-topic='bottom-left'></div> </div> <div id="unit-selection"> <div class="info"> select border units </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> css content /* grid of ten * ========================================================================== */ .span_12 { width: 100%; } .span_11 { width: 91.46%; } .span_10 { width: 83%; } .span_9 { width: 74.54%; } .span_8 { width: 66.08%; } .span_7 { width: 57.62%; } .span_6 { width: 49.16%; } .span_5 { width: 40.7%; } .span_4 { width: 32.24%; } .span_3 { width: 23.78%; } .span...
Using multiple backgrounds - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
example in this example, three backgrounds are stacked: the firefox logo, an image of bubbles, and a linear gradient: html <div class="multi-bg-example"></div> css .multi-bg-example { width: 100%; height: 400px; background-image: url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11305/firefox.png), url(https://mdn.mozillademos.org/files/11307/bubbles.png), linear-gradient(to right, rgba(30, 75, 115, 1), rgba(255, 255, 255, 0)); background-repeat: no-repeat, no-repeat, no-repeat; background-position: bottom right, left, ri...
...ght; } result (if image does not appear in codepen, click the 'tidy' button in the css section) as you can see here, the firefox logo (listed first within background-image) is on top, directly above the bubbles graphic, followed by the gradient (listed last) sitting underneath all previous 'images'.
Handling content breaks in multicol - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
in both contexts we control where and how things break by using properties of the css fragmentation specification.
... fragmentation basics the css fragmentation specification details how content breaks between the fragmentation containers, or fragmentainers.
Aligning Items in a Flex Container - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
note: the alignment properties in flexbox have been placed into their own specification — css box alignment level 3.
... the box alignment module also includes other methods of creating space between items, such as the column-gap and row-gap feature as seen in css grid layout.
Ordering Flex Items - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this allows authors to manipulate the visual presentation while leaving the source order intact for non-css uas and for linear models such as speech and sequential navigation.” - ordering and orientation if your items were links or some other element that the user could tab to, then the tabbing order would be the order that these items appear in the document source — not your visual order.
... flexbox and the keyboard navigation disconnect html source order vs css display order the responsive order conflict for keyboard focus use cases for order there are sometimes places where the fact that the logical and therefore reading order of flex items is separate from the visual order, is helpful.
Typical use cases of Flexbox - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
you can read more about the difference between flexbox and css grid layout in relationship of flexbox to other layout methods, where we discuss how flexbox fits into the overall picture of css layout.
... card layout pushing footer down whether you use flexbox or css grid to lay out a list of card components, these layout methods only work on direct children of the flex or grid component.
Introduction to formatting contexts - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
elements participating in a bfc use the rules outlined by the css box model, which defines how an element's margins, borders, and padding interact with other blocks in the same context.
...any block-level element can be made to create a bfc by the application of certain css properties.
Stacking context example 1 - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
« css « understanding css z-index stacking context example 1 let's start with a basic example.
...#1</span> <br />position: relative; <div id="div2"> <br /><span class="bold">div #2</span> <br />position: absolute; <br />z-index: 1; </div> </div> <br /> <div id="div3"> <br /><span class="bold">div #3</span> <br />position: relative; <div id="div4"> <br /><span class="bold">div #4</span> <br />position: absolute; <br />z-index: 2; </div> </div> </body></html> css .bold { font-weight: bold; font: 12px arial; } #div1, #div3 { height: 80px; position: relative; border: 1px dashed #669966; background-color: #ccffcc; padding-left: 5px; } #div2 { opacity: 0.8; z-index: 1; position: absolute; width: 150px; height: 200px; top: 20px; left: 170px; border: 1px dashed #990000; background-color: #ffdddd; ...
Stacking context example 2 - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
« css « understanding css z-index stacking context example 2 this is a very simple example, but it is the key for understanding the concept of stacking context.
... example source code <!doctype html public "-//w3c//dtd xhtml 1.0 transitional//en" "http://www.w3.org/tr/xhtml1/dtd/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html> <head><style type="text/css"> div { font: 12px arial; } span.bold { font-weight: bold; } #div2 { z-index: 2; } #div3 { z-index: 1; } #div4 { z-index: 10; } #div1,#div3 { height: 80px; position: relative; border: 1px dashed #669966; background-color: #ccffcc; padding-left: 5px; } #div2 { opacity: 0.8; position: absolute; width: 150px; height: 200px; top: 20px; left: 170px; border: 1px...
Stacking context example 3 - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
« css « understanding css z-index stacking context example 3 this last example shows problems that arise when mixing several positioned elements in a multi-level html hierarchy and when z-indexes are assigned using class selectors.
... example source code <!doctype html public "-//w3c//dtd xhtml 1.0 transitional//en" "http://www.w3.org/tr/xhtml1/dtd/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html> <head><style type="text/css"> div { font: 12px arial; } span.bold { font-weight: bold; } div.lev1 { width: 250px; height: 70px; position: relative; border: 2px outset #669966; background-color: #ccffcc; padding-left: 5px; } #container1 { z-index: 1; position: absolute; top: 30px; left: 75px; } div.lev2 { opacity: 0.9; width: 200px; height: 60px; position: relative; border: 2...
Column combinator - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column combinator (||) is placed between two css selectors.
... syntax column-selector || cell-selector { /* style properties */ } examples html <table border="1"> <colgroup> <col span="2"/> <col class="selected"/> </colgroup> <tbody> <tr> <td>a <td>b <td>c </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2">d</td> <td>e</td> </tr> <tr> <td>f</td> <td colspan="2">g</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> css col.selected || td { background: gray; color: white; font-weight: bold; } result specifications specification status comment selectors level 4the definition of 'column combinator' in that specification.
Breadcrumb Navigation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
choices made this pattern is laid out using a simple flex layout demonstrating how a line of css can give us our navigation.
... the separators are added using css generated content.
Card - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
recipe download this example choices made the card is laid out using css grid layout despite being a single dimensional layout, as it enables the use of content sizing for the grid tracks.
...alternatively you could use css multi-col — this would cause the cards to lay out down the columns, which may or may not be a problem.
Grid wrapper - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
recipe download this example choices made this recipe uses the css grid minmax() function to define the grid track sizes in the grid-template-columns property.
... accessibility concerns although grid enables us to position items anwhere (within reason), it is important when placing items using css grid that your underlying markup follows a logical order (see css grid layout and accessibility for more details).
Recipe: Media objects - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
by using grid-template-areas to achieve the layout, i can see the pattern in the css.
... relevant resources on mdn css grid layout progressive enhancement and grid layout using grid template areas fit-content grid-template-areas ...
Layout mode - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
a css layout mode, sometimes simply called layout, is an algorithm that determines the position and size of boxes based on the way they interact with their sibling and ancestor boxes.
... note: not all css properties apply to all layout modes.
Pseudo-elements - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
a css pseudo-element is a keyword added to a selector that lets you style a specific part of the selected element(s).
... 9.0 :pseudo-element ::pseudo-element firefox (gecko) 1.0 (1.0) :pseudo-element 1.0 (1.5) :pseudo-element ::pseudo-element opera 4.0 :pseudo-element 7.0 :pseudo-element ::pseudo-element safari (webkit) 1.0 (85) :pseudo-element ::pseudo-element specifications specification status comment css level 1 recommendation defined pseudo-classes and pseudo-elements.
Selector list - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the css selector list (,) selects all the matching nodes.
... working draft renamed to "selector list" css level 1the definition of 'grouping' in that specification.
Actual value - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the actual value of a css property is the used value of that property after any necessary approximations have been applied.
... specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'actual value' in that specification.
backdrop-filter - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the backdrop-filter css property lets you apply graphical effects such as blurring or color shifting to the area behind an element.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples css .box { background-color: rgba(255, 255, 255, 0.3); border-radius: 5px; font-family: sans-serif; text-align: center; line-height: 1; -webkit-backdrop-filter: blur(10px); backdrop-filter: blur(10px); max-width: 50%; max-height: 50%; padding: 20px 40px; } html, body { height: 100%; width: 100%; } body { background-image: url(https://picsum.photos/id/1080/6858/4574), linea...
background-origin - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-origin css property sets the background's origin: from the border start, inside the border, or inside the padding.
...d black; padding: 10px; background: url('image.gif'); background-repeat: no-repeat; background-origin: border-box; } div { background-image: url('logo.jpg'), url('mainback.png'); /* applies two images to the background */ background-position: top right, 0px 0px; background-origin: content-box, padding-box; } specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'background-origin' in that specification.
background-position-x - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-position-x css property sets the initial horizontal position for each background image.
... html <div></div> css div { width: 300px; height: 300px; background-color: skyblue; background-image: url(https://media.prod.mdn.mozit.cloud/attachments/2020/07/29/17350/3b4892b7e820122ac6dd7678891d4507/firefox.png); background-repeat: no-repeat; background-position-x: center; background-position-y: bottom 10px; } result specifications specification status comment css ba...
background-position-y - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the background-position-y css property sets the initial vertical position for each background image.
... html <div></div> css div { width: 300px; height: 300px; background-color: skyblue; background-image: url(https://media.prod.mdn.mozit.cloud/attachments/2020/07/29/17350/3b4892b7e820122ac6dd7678891d4507/firefox.png); background-repeat: no-repeat; background-position-x: center; background-position-y: bottom 10px; } result specifications specification status comment css ba...
<blend-mode> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <blend-mode> css data type describes how colors should appear when elements overlap.
...tion>screen</option> <option>overlay</option> <option>darken</option> <option>lighten</option> <option>color-dodge</option> <option>color-burn</option> <option>hard-light</option> <option>soft-light</option> <option>difference</option> <option>exclusion</option> <option>hue</option> <option>saturation</option> <option>color</option> <option>luminosity</option> </select> css div { width: 300px; height: 300px; background: url(https://media.prod.mdn.mozit.cloud/attachments/2020/07/29/17350/3b4892b7e820122ac6dd7678891d4507/firefox.png) no-repeat center, linear-gradient(to bottom, blue, orange); } javascript const selectelem = document.queryselector('select'); const divelem = document.queryselector('div'); selectelem.addeventlistener('change', () => { divel...
block-size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the block-size css property defines the horizontal or vertical size of an element's block, depending on its writing mode.
... formal definition initial valueautoapplies tosame as width and heightinheritednopercentagesblock-size of containing blockcomputed valuesame as width and heightanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <'width'> examples block size with vertical text html <p class="exampletext">example text</p> css .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; background-color: yellow; block-size: 200px; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'block-size' in that specification.
border-block-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-color css property defines the color of the logical block borders of an element, which maps to a physical border color depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuecurrentcolorapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valuecomputed coloranimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-color'>{1,2} examples border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 10px solid blue; border-block-color: red; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-color' in that specification.
border-block-end-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-end-color css property defines the color of the logical block-end border of an element, which maps to a physical border color depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuecurrentcolorapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valuecomputed coloranimation typea color formal syntax <'border-top-color'> examples border color with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 10px solid blue; border-block-end-color: red; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-end-color' in that specification.
border-block-end-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-end-style css property defines the style of the logical block-end border of an element, which maps to a physical border style depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-style'> examples dashed border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 5px solid blue; border-block-end-style: dashed; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-end-style' in that specification.
border-block-end-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-end-width css property defines the width of the logical block-end border of an element, which maps to a physical border width depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuemediumapplies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueabsolute length; 0 if the border style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <'border-top-width'> examples border width with veritcal text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 1px solid blue; border-block-end-width: 5px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-end-width' in that specification.
border-block-start-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-start-color css property defines the color of the logical block-start border of an element, which maps to a physical border color depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... values <'color'> see border-color formal definition initial valuecurrentcolorapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valuecomputed coloranimation typea color formal syntax <'border-top-color'> examples border color with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 10px solid blue; border-block-start-color: red; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-start-color' in that specification.
border-block-start-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-start-style css property defines the style of the logical block start border of an element, which maps to a physical border style depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-style'> examples dashed border wtih vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 5px solid blue; border-block-start-style: dashed; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-start-style' in that specification.
border-block-start-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-start-width css property defines the width of the logical block-start border of an element, which maps to a physical border width depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuemediumapplies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueabsolute length; 0 if the border style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <'border-top-width'> examples border width with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 1px solid blue; border-block-start-width: 5px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-start-width' in that specification.
border-block-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-style css property defines the style of the logical block borders of an element, which maps to a physical border style depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-style'> examples dashed border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 5px solid blue; border-block-style: dashed; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-style' in that specification.
border-block-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-block-width css property defines the width of the logical block borders of an element, which maps to a physical border width depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuemediumapplies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueabsolute length; 0 if the border style is none or hiddenanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-width'> examples border width with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 1px solid blue; border-block-width: 5px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-block-width' in that specification.
border-image-outset - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-image-outset css property sets the distance by which an element's border image is set out from its border box.
...it also applies to ::first-letter.inheritednocomputed valueas specified, but with relative lengths converted into absolute lengthsanimation typeby computed value type formal syntax [ <length> | <number> ]{1,4} examples outsetting a border image html <div id="outset">this element has an outset border image!</div> css #outset { width: 10rem; background: #cef; border: 1.4rem solid; border-image: radial-gradient(#ff2, #55f) 40; border-image-outset: 1.5; /* 1.5 × 1.4rem = 2.1rem */ margin: 2.1rem; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-image-outset' in that specification.
border-image-source - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-image-source css property sets the source image used to create an element's border image.
... specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-image-source' in that specification.
border-image-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-image-width css property sets the width of an element's border image.
...stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.</p> css p { border: 20px solid; border-image: url("/static/external/21/214842819586a8dd293c17b38d0fd0e26430146a86dd04294a53ecaeeea7d0e2.png") 30 round; border-image-width: 16px; padding: 40px; } result specifications specification status comment css backgrounds and borders module level 3the definition of 'border-image-width' in that specification.
border-inline-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-color css property defines the color of the logical inline borders of an element, which maps to a physical border color depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuecurrentcolorapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valuecomputed coloranimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-color'>{1,2} examples border color with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 10px solid blue; border-inline-color: red; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-color' in that specification.
border-inline-end-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-end-color css property defines the color of the logical inline-end border of an element, which maps to a physical border color depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuecurrentcolorapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valuecomputed coloranimation typea color formal syntax <'border-top-color'> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 10px solid blue; border-inline-end-color: red; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-end-color' in that specification.
border-inline-end-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-end-style css property defines the style of the logical inline end border of an element, which maps to a physical border style depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-style'> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 5px solid blue; border-inline-end-style: dashed; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-end-style' in that specification.
border-inline-end-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-end-width css property defines the width of the logical inline-end border of an element, which maps to a physical border width depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuemediumapplies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueabsolute length; 0 if the border style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <'border-top-width'> examples applying a border with vertical text html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 1px solid blue; border-inline-end-width: 5px; } results specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-end-width' in that specification.
border-inline-start-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-start-color css property defines the color of the logical inline start border of an element, which maps to a physical border color depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuecurrentcolorapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valuecomputed coloranimation typea color formal syntax <'border-top-color'> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 10px solid blue; border-inline-start-color: red; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-start-color' in that specification.
border-inline-start-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-start-style css property defines the style of the logical inline start border of an element, which maps to a physical border style depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-style'> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 5px solid blue; border-inline-start-style: dashed; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-start-style' in that specification.
border-inline-start-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-start-width css property defines the width of the logical inline-start border of an element, which maps to a physical border width depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuemediumapplies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueabsolute length; 0 if the border style is none or hiddenanimation typea length formal syntax <'border-top-width'> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 1px solid blue; border-inline-start-width: 5px; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-start-width' in that specification.
border-inline-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-style css property defines the style of the logical inline borders of an element, which maps to a physical border style depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuenoneapplies toall elementsinheritednocomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-style'> examples html content <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css content div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 5px solid blue; border-inline-style: dashed; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-style' in that specification.
border-inline-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-inline-width css property defines the width of the logical inline borders of an element, which maps to a physical border width depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valuemediumapplies toall elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-width of containing blockcomputed valueabsolute length; 0 if the border style is none or hiddenanimation typediscrete formal syntax <'border-top-width'> examples html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-lr; border: 1px solid blue; border-inline-width: 5px 10px; } specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'border-inline-width' in that specification.
border-spacing - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the border-spacing css property sets the distance between the borders of adjacent <table> cells.
... html <table> <tr> <td>1</td><td>2</td><td>3</td> </tr> <tr> <td>4</td><td>5</td><td>6</td> </tr> <tr> <td>7</td><td>8</td><td>9</td> </tr> </table> css table { border-spacing: 1em .5em; padding: 0 2em 1em 0; border: 1px solid orange; } td { width: 1.5em; height: 1.5em; background: #d2d2d2; text-align: center; vertical-align: middle; } result specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'border-spacing' in that specification.
box-flex-group - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this is a property of the original css flexible box layout module draft, and has been replaced by a newer standard.
... the box-flex-group css property assigns the flexbox's child elements to a flex group.
box-lines - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSbox-lines
this is a property of the original css flexible box layout module draft, and has been replaced by a newer standard.
... the box-lines css property determines whether the box may have a single or multiple lines (rows for horizontally oriented boxes, columns for vertically oriented boxes).
box-ordinal-group - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
this is a property of the original css flexible box layout module draft, and has been replaced by a newer standard.
... the box-ordinal-group css property assigns the flexbox's child elements to an ordinal group.
caret-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the caret-color css property sets the color of the insertion caret, the visible marker where the next character typed will be inserted.
...)where <alpha-value> = <number> | <percentage><hue> = <number> | <angle> examples setting a custom caret color html <input value="this field uses a default caret." size="64"/> <input class="custom" value="i have a custom caret color!" size="64"/> <p contenteditable class="custom">this paragraph can be edited, and its caret has a custom color as well!</p> css input { caret-color: auto; display: block; margin-bottom: .5em; } input.custom { caret-color: red; } p.custom { caret-color: green; } result specifications specification status comment css basic user interface module level 3the definition of 'caret-color' in that specification.
clamp() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSclamp
the clamp() css function clamps a value between an upper and lower bound.
...</p> css html { font-family: sans-serif; } body { margin: 0 auto; width: min(1000px, calc(70% + 100px)); } h1 { letter-spacing: 2px; font-size: clamp(1.8rem, 2.5vw, 2.8rem); } p { line-height: 1.5; font-size: max(1.2rem, 1.2vw); } specifications specification status comment css values and units module level 4the definition of 'clamp()' in that specification.
column-rule-color - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-rule-color css property sets the color of the line drawn between columns in a multi-column layout.
... don't you think that's wonderful?</p> css p { column-count: 3; column-rule-style: solid; column-rule-color: blue; } result specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'column-rule-color' in that specification.
column-rule-style - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-rule-style css property sets the style of the line drawn between columns in a multi-column layout.
... don't you think that's wonderful?</p> css p { column-count: 3; column-rule-style: dashed; } result specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'column-rule-style' in that specification.
column-rule-width - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-rule-width css property sets the width of the line drawn between columns in a multi-column layout.
... don't you think that's wonderful?</p> css p { column-count: 3; column-rule-style: solid; column-rule-width: thick; } result specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'column-rule-width' in that specification.
column-rule - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the column-rule shorthand css property sets the width, style, and color of the line drawn between columns in a multi-column layout.
...</p> css .content-box { padding: 0.3em; background: #ff7; column-count: 3; column-rule: inset 2px #33f; } result specifications specification status comment css multi-column layout modulethe definition of 'column-rule' in that specification.
contain - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSScontain
the contain css property allows an author to indicate that an element and its contents are, as much as possible, independent of the rest of the document tree.
...src="graphic.jpg" alt="photo"> <p>more content here.</p> </article> img { float: left; border: 3px solid black; } article { border: 1px solid black; contain: content; } this also means that the first image no longer floats down to the second article, and instead stays inside it's containing element's bounds: specifications specification status comment css containment module level 1the definition of 'contain' in that specification.
<display-internal> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
examples css tables example the following example demonstrates laying out a simple form using css table layout.
... html <main> <div> <label for="name">name</label> <input type="text" id="name" name="name"> </div> <div> <label for="age">age</label> <input type="text" id="age" name="age"> </div> </main> css main { display: table; } div { display: table-row; } label, input { display: table-cell; margin: 5px; } result specifications specification status css display module level 3the definition of 'display-internal' in that specification.
empty-cells - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the empty-cells css property sets whether borders and backgrounds appear around <table> cells that have no visible content.
...mputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax show | hide example showing and hiding empty table cells html <table class="table_1"> <tr> <td>moe</td> <td>larry</td> </tr> <tr> <td>curly</td> <td></td> </tr> </table> <br> <table class="table_2"> <tr> <td>moe</td> <td>larry</td> </tr> <tr> <td>curly</td> <td></td> </tr> </table> css .table_1 { empty-cells: show; } .table_2 { empty-cells: hide; } td, th { border: 1px solid gray; padding: 0.5rem; } result specifications specification status comment css level 2 (revision 1)the definition of 'empty-cells' in that specification.
<filter-function> - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the <filter-function> css data type represents a graphical effect that can change the appearance of an input image.
...n> <option>contrast</option> <option>drop-shadow</option> <option>grayscale</option> <option>hue-rotate</option> <option>invert</option> <option>opacity</option> <option>saturate</option> <option>sepia</option> </select> </li> <li> <input type="range"><output></output> </li> <li> <p>current value: <code></code></p> </li> </ul> css div { width: 300px; height: 300px; background: url(https://media.prod.mdn.mozit.cloud/attachments/2020/07/29/17350/3b4892b7e820122ac6dd7678891d4507/firefox.png) no-repeat center; } li { display: flex; align-items: center; justify-content: center; margin-bottom: 20px; } input { width: 60% } output { width: 5%; text-align: center; } select { width: 40%; margin-left: 2px...
flex-grow - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSflex-grow
the flex-grow css property sets the flex grow factor of a flex item main size.
... .</h5> <div id="content"> <div class="box" style="background-color:red;">a</div> <div class="box" style="background-color:lightblue;">b</div> <div class="box" style="background-color:yellow;">c</div> <div class="box1" style="background-color:brown;">d</div> <div class="box1" style="background-color:lightgreen;">e</div> <div class="box" style="background-color:brown;">f</div> </div> css #content { display: flex; justify-content: space-around; flex-flow: row wrap; align-items: stretch; } .box { flex-grow: 1; border: 3px solid rgba(0,0,0,.2); } .box1 { flex-grow: 2; border: 3px solid rgba(0,0,0,.2); } result specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'flex-grow' in that specific...
flex-shrink - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the flex-shrink css property sets the flex shrink factor of a flex item.
...ink:2 set</p> <p>the width of d and e is less than the others.</p> <div id="content"> <div class="box" style="background-color:red;">a</div> <div class="box" style="background-color:lightblue;">b</div> <div class="box" style="background-color:yellow;">c</div> <div class="box1" style="background-color:brown;">d</div> <div class="box1" style="background-color:lightgreen;">e</div> </div> css #content { display: flex; width: 500px; } #content div { flex-basis: 120px; border: 3px solid rgba(0,0,0,.2); } .box { flex-shrink: 1; } .box1 { flex-shrink: 2; } result specifications specification status comment css flexible box layout modulethe definition of 'flex-shrink' in that specification.
font-feature-settings - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-feature-settings css property controls advanced typographic features in opentype fonts.
..."; } /* enable automatic fractions */ .fractions { font-feature-settings: "frac"; } /* use the second available swash character */ .swash { font-feature-settings: "swsh" 2; } /* enable stylistic set 7 */ .fancystyle { font-family: gabriola; /* available on windows 7, and on mac os */ font-feature-settings: "ss07"; } specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-feature-settings' in that specification.
font-language-override - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-language-override css property controls the use of language-specific glyphs in a typeface.
...it also applies to ::first-letter and ::first-line.inheritedyescomputed valueas specifiedanimation typediscrete formal syntax normal | <string> examples using danish glyphs html <p class="para1">default language setting.</p> <p class="para2">this is a string with the <code>font-language-override</code> set to danish.</p> css p.para1 { font-language-override: normal; } p.para2 { font-language-override: "dan"; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 4the definition of 'font-language-override' in that specification.
font-optical-sizing - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-optical-sizing css property sets whether text rendering is optimized for viewing at different sizes.
... specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 4the definition of 'font-optical-sizing' in that specification.
font-smooth - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-smooth css property controls the application of anti-aliasing when fonts are rendered.
... for those of you not on a macos system, here is a screenshot (the live version appears later on): html <p>without font smoothing</p> <p class="smoothed">with font smoothing</p> css html { background-color: black; color: white; font-size: 3rem; } p { text-align: center; } .smoothed { -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; -moz-osx-font-smoothing: grayscale; } result specifications not part of any standard.
font-synthesis - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-synthesis css property controls which missing typefaces, bold or italic, may be synthesized by the browser.
...站直。</em> css em { font-weight: bold; } .syn { font-synthesis: style weight; } .no-syn { font-synthesis: none; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-synthesis' in that specification.
font-variant-alternates - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variant-alternates css property controls the usage of alternate glyphs.
...ediscrete formal syntax normal | [ stylistic( <feature-value-name> ) | historical-forms | styleset( <feature-value-name># ) | character-variant( <feature-value-name># ) | swash( <feature-value-name> ) | ornaments( <feature-value-name> ) | annotation( <feature-value-name> ) ]where <feature-value-name> = <custom-ident> examples html <p>firefox rocks!</p> <p class="variant">firefox rocks!</p> css @font-feature-values "leitura display swashes" { @swash { fancy: 1 } } p { font-size: 1.5rem; } .variant { font-family: leitura display swashes; font-variant-alternates: swash(fancy); } result note: you need to install the opentype font leitura display swashes for this example to work.
font-variant-east-asian - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the font-variant-east-asian css property controls the use of alternate glyphs for east asian scripts, like japanese and chinese.
... html <table> <thead></thead> <tbody style="border:0;"> <tr> <th>normal/jis78:</th> <td>麹町</td> <td class="jis78">麹町</td> </tr> <tr> <th>normal/ruby:</th> <td>しんかんせん</td> <td class="ruby">しんかんせん</td> </tr> <tr> <th>normal/traditional:</th> <td>大学</td> <td class="traditional">大学</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> css td{ font-family:"yu gothic"; font-size:20px; } th{ color:grey; padding-right:10px; } .ruby { font-variant-east-asian: ruby; } .jis78 { font-variant-east-asian: jis78; } .traditional{ font-variant-east-asian: traditional; } result specifications specification status comment css fonts module level 3the definition of 'font-variant-east-asian' in t...
grid-auto-columns - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-auto-columns css property specifies the size of an implicitly-created grid column track or pattern of tracks.
...content( [ <length> | <percentage> ] )where <track-breadth> = <length-percentage> | <flex> | min-content | max-content | auto<inflexible-breadth> = <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | autowhere <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting grid column size html <div id="grid"> <div id="item1"></div> <div id="item2"></div> <div id="item3"></div> </div> css #grid { height: 100px; display: grid; grid-template-areas: "a a"; grid-gap: 10px; grid-auto-columns: 200px; } #grid > div { background-color: lime; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-auto-columns' in that specification.
grid-auto-rows - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the grid-auto-rows css property specifies the size of an implicitly-created grid row track or pattern of tracks.
...fit-content( [ <length> | <percentage> ] )where <track-breadth> = <length-percentage> | <flex> | min-content | max-content | auto<inflexible-breadth> = <length> | <percentage> | min-content | max-content | autowhere <length-percentage> = <length> | <percentage> examples setting grid row size html <div id="grid"> <div id="item1"></div> <div id="item2"></div> <div id="item3"></div> </div> css #grid { width: 200px; display: grid; grid-template-areas: "a a"; grid-gap: 10px; grid-auto-rows: 100px; } #grid > div { background-color: lime; } result specifications specification status comment css grid layoutthe definition of 'grid-auto-rows' in that specification.
hanging-punctuation - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the hanging-punctuation css property specifies whether a punctuation mark should hang at the start or end of a line of text.
...praesent laoreet tortor massa, sit amet vulputate nulla pharetra ut.”</p> css p { hanging-punctuation: first last; margin: .5rem; } result specifications specification status comment css text module level 3the definition of 'hanging-punctuation' in that specification.
hyphens - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSShyphens
the hyphens css property specifies how words should be hyphenated when text wraps across multiple lines.
...w if needed</dt> <dd lang="en" class="none">an extreme&shy;ly long english word</dd> <dt><code>manual</code>: hyphen only at &amp;hyphen; or &amp;shy; (if needed)</dt> <dd lang="en" class="manual">an extreme&shy;ly long english word</dd> <dt><code>auto</code>: hyphens where the algorithm decides (if needed)</dt> <dd lang="en" class="auto">an extreme&shy;ly long english word</dd> </dl> css dd { width: 55px; border: 1px solid black; } dd.none { -webkit-hyphens: none; -ms-hyphens: none; hyphens: none; } dd.manual { -webkit-hyphens: manual; -ms-hyphens: manual; hyphens: manual; } dd.auto { -webkit-hyphens: auto; -ms-hyphens: auto; hyphens: auto; } result specifications specification status comment css text module level 3the d...
image-rendering - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the image-rendering css property sets an image scaling algorithm.
... <div> <img class="auto" alt="auto" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/de/cedd397be3.jpg" /> <img class="pixelated" alt="pixelated" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/de/cedd397be3.jpg" /> <img class="crisp-edges" alt="crisp-edges" src="https://udn.realityripple.com/samples/de/cedd397be3.jpg" /> </div> img { height: 200px; } css .auto { image-rendering: auto; } .pixelated { -ms-interpolation-mode: nearest-neighbor; image-rendering: pixelated; } .crisp-edges { image-rendering: -webkit-optimize-contrast; image-rendering: crisp-edges; } result specifications specification status comment css images module level 3the definition of 'image-rendering' in that specification.
image-set() - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
WebCSSimage-set
the image-set() css function notation is a method of letting the browser pick the most appropriate css image from a given set, primarily for high pixel density screens.
... mdn understanding wcag, guideline 1.1 explanations understanding success criterion 1.1.1 | w3c understanding wcag 2.0 specifications specification status comment css images module level 4the definition of 'the image-set() notation' in that specification.
initial-letter - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the initial-letter css property sets styling for dropped, raised, and sunken initial letters.
...] examples setting initial letter size html <p class="normal">initial letter is normal</p> <p class="onefive">initial letter occupies 1.5 lines</p> <p class="three">initial letter occupies 3 lines</p> css .normal { -webkit-initial-letter: normal; initial-letter: normal; } .onefive { -webkit-initial-letter: 1.5; initial-letter: 1.5; } .three { -webkit-initial-letter: 3.0; initial-letter: 3.0; } result specifications specification status comment css inline layoutthe definition of 'initial-letter' in that specification.
inline-size - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the inline-size css property defines the horizontal or vertical size of an element's block, depending on its writing mode.
... formal definition initial valueautoapplies tosame as width and heightinheritednopercentagesinline-size of containing blockcomputed valuesame as width and heightanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <'width'> examples setting inline size in pixels html <p class="exampletext">example text</p> css .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; background-color: yellow; inline-size: 110px; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'inline-size' in that specification.
inset-block-end - CSS: Cascading Style Sheets
the inset-block-end css property defines the logical block end offset of an element, which maps to a physical inset depending on the element's writing mode, directionality, and text orientation.
... formal definition initial valueautoapplies topositioned elementsinheritednopercentageslogical-height of containing blockcomputed valuesame as box offsets: top, right, bottom, left properties except that directions are logicalanimation typea length, percentage or calc(); formal syntax <'top'> examples setting block end offset html <div> <p class="exampletext">example text</p> </div> css div { background-color: yellow; width: 120px; height: 120px; } .exampletext { writing-mode: vertical-rl; position: relative; inset-block-end: 20px; background-color: #c8c800; } result specifications specification status comment css logical properties and values level 1the definition of 'inset-block-end' in that specification.